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How to Train a Robot

Home AI - 21 Leden, 2021 - 16:22

Instead, he looked to a form of deep learning known as generative adversarial networks, or GANs, where two neural networks contest with each other in …


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Kategorie: Transhumanismus

Google Forms Set Baseline For Widespread BEC Attacks

Threatpost - 21 Leden, 2021 - 16:02
Researchers warn that attackers are collecting reconnaissance for future business email compromise attacks using Google Forms.
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

Google Forms Set Baseline For Widespread BEC Attacks

VirusList.com - 21 Leden, 2021 - 16:02
Researchers warn that attackers are collecting reconnaissance for future business email compromise attacks using Google Forms.
Kategorie: Viry a Červi

Earth Has Stayed Habitable for Billions of Years. Exactly How Lucky Did We Get?

Singularity HUB - 21 Leden, 2021 - 16:00

It took evolution three or four billion years to produce Homo sapiens. If the climate had completely failed just once in that time, then evolution would have come to a crashing halt and we would not be here now. So to understand how we came to exist on planet Earth, we’ll need to know how Earth managed to stay fit for life for billions of years.

This is not a trivial problem. Current global warming shows us that the climate can change considerably over the course of even a few centuries. Over geological timescales, it is even easier to change climate. Calculations show that there is the potential for Earth’s climate to deteriorate to temperatures below freezing or above boiling in just a few million years.

We also know that the sun has become 30 percent more luminous since life first evolved. In theory, this should have caused the oceans to boil away by now, given that they were not generally frozen on the early Earth. This is known as the “faint young sun paradox.” Yet, somehow, this habitability puzzle was solved.

Scientists have come up with two main theories. The first is that the Earth could possess something like a thermostat—a feedback mechanism (or mechanisms) that prevents the climate ever wandering to fatal temperatures.

The second is that, out of a large number of planets, perhaps some just make it through by luck, and Earth is one of those. This second scenario is made more plausible by the discoveries in recent decades of many planets outside our solar system—so-called exoplanets. Astronomical observations of distant stars tell us that many have planets orbiting them, and that some are of a size and density and orbital distance such that temperatures suitable for life are theoretically possible. It has been estimated that there are at least two billion such candidate planets in our galaxy alone.

Scientists would love to travel to these exoplanets to investigate whether any of them have matched Earth’s billion years of climate stability. But even the nearest exoplanets, those orbiting the star Proxima Centauri, are more than four light-years away. Observational or experimental evidence is hard to come by.

Instead, I explored the same question through modeling. Using a computer program designed to simulate climate evolution on planets in general (not just Earth), I first generated 100,000 planets, each with a randomly different set of climate feedbacks. Climate feedbacks are processes that can amplify or diminish climate change—think for instance of sea-ice melting in the Arctic, which replaces sunlight-reflecting ice with sunlight-absorbing open sea, which in turn causes more warming and more melting.

In order to investigate how likely each of these diverse planets was to stay habitable over enormous (geological) timescales, I simulated each 100 times. Each time the planet started from a different initial temperature and was exposed to a randomly different set of climate events. These events represent climate-altering factors such as supervolcano eruptions (like Mount Pinatubo but much larger) and asteroid impacts (like the one that killed the dinosaurs). On each of the 100 runs, the planet’s temperature was tracked until it became too hot or too cold or else had survived for three billion years, at which point it was deemed to have been a possible crucible for intelligent life.

The simulation results give a definite answer to this habitability problem, at least in terms of the importance of feedbacks and luck. It was very rare (in fact, just one time out of 100,000) for a planet to have such strong stabilizing feedbacks that it stayed habitable all 100 times, irrespective of the random climate events. In fact, most planets that stayed habitable at least once did so fewer than 10 times out of 100. On nearly every occasion in the simulation when a planet remained habitable for three billion years, it was partly down to luck. At the same time, luck by itself was shown to be insufficient. Planets that were specially designed to have no feedbacks at all never stayed habitable; random walks, buffeted around by climate events, never lasted the course.

Repeat runs in the simulation were not identical: 1,000 different planets were generated randomly and each run twice. (a) results on first run, (b) results on second run. Green circles show success (stayed habitable for 3 billion years) and black failure. Toby Tyrrell, Author provided

This overall result, that outcomes depend partly on feedbacks and partly on luck, is robust. All sorts of changes to the modeling did not affect it. By implication, Earth must therefore possess some climate-stabilizing feedbacks, but at the same time, good fortune must also have been involved in it staying habitable. If, for instance, an asteroid or solar flare had been slightly larger than it was, or had occurred at a slightly different (more critical) time, we would probably not be here on Earth today. It gives a different perspective on why we are able to look back on Earth’s remarkable, enormously extended, history of life evolving and diversifying and becoming ever more complex to the point that it gave rise to us.

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

Image Credit: PIRO4D from Pixabay

Kategorie: Transhumanismus

MrbMiner Crypto-Mining Malware Links to Iranian Software Company

The Hacker News - 21 Leden, 2021 - 15:58
A relatively new crypto-mining malware that surfaced last year and infected thousands of Microsoft SQL Server (MSSQL) databases has now been linked to a small software development company based in Iran. The attribution was made possible due to an operational security oversight, said researchers from cybersecurity firm Sophos, that led to the company's name inadvertently making its way into the
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

Významný objev: V meteoritech se před dopadem vyskytovala kapalná voda

Živě.cz - 21 Leden, 2021 - 15:55
Pro pozemský život je voda nezbytnou ingrediencí • Kde se ale na naší planetě vzala? • Vědci se obvykle domnívají, že ji sem dopravily meteority, ale tuto možnost je obtížné potvrdit
Kategorie: IT News

Keep current, stay employed: The most in-demand tech skills for 2021

Home AI - 21 Leden, 2021 - 15:37

Top 10 in-demand data skills, in order: Database programming and admin, analytics techniques, fundamentals, machine/deep learning, processing, …


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Kategorie: Transhumanismus

Researchers develop a system that can recommend personalized and healthy recipes

Home AI - 21 Leden, 2021 - 15:30

"Deep learning systems struggle with numeric comparison constraints (e.g., dishes that are under 500 calories)," Zaki explained. "We solve this by …


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Kategorie: Transhumanismus

Aiforia partners with Pathan to bring artificial intelligence assisted diagnostics to the pathology lab

Home AI - 21 Leden, 2021 - 15:26

The Aiforia Platform brings deep learning AI straight to the hands of medical experts with its intuitive software. Pathologists are able to create AI …


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Kategorie: Transhumanismus

Kalendář Google umí fungovat offline. Na vytváření a editování událostí ale zapomeňte

Živě.cz - 21 Leden, 2021 - 15:25
Google standardně pro počítače neposkytuje aplikace a tak pro fungování bez internetu je nutné se spolehnout na aplikace třetích stran. Některé služby ale mají vlastní offline režim uvnitř prohlížeče a k těm se připojuje nově i Kalendář. Pokud používáte Gmail či Dokumenty Google, pravděpodobně ...
Kategorie: IT News

New research demonstrates how the best camouflage can be found for an arbitrary environment

Home AI - 21 Leden, 2021 - 15:15

Using a mixture of genetic algorithms and deep learning the authors have shown how detection times to millions of patterns with multiple colours can …

Kategorie: Transhumanismus

BEN Closes 2020 with Rapid Business Growth, Continued Innovation in AI

Home AI - 21 Leden, 2021 - 15:15

… directly to the creator community, empowering the platform's network of 6M+ creators through its proprietary AI and deep learning neural networks.


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Kategorie: Transhumanismus

Hackers Accidentally Expose Passwords Stolen From Businesses On the Internet

The Hacker News - 21 Leden, 2021 - 15:05
A new large-scale phishing campaign targeting global organizations has been found to bypass Microsoft Office 365 Advanced Threat Protection (ATP) and steal credentials belonging to over a thousand corporate employees. The cyber offensive is said to have originated in August last year, with the attacks aimed specifically at energy and construction companies, said researchers from Check Point
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

Google Searches Expose Stolen Corporate Credentials

Threatpost - 21 Leden, 2021 - 15:00
A phishing campaign spoofs Xerox notifications to lure victims into clicking on malicious HTML attachments.
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

Google Searches Expose Stolen Corporate Credentials

VirusList.com - 21 Leden, 2021 - 15:00
A phishing campaign spoofs Xerox notifications to lure victims into clicking on malicious HTML attachments.
Kategorie: Viry a Červi

Opera zvyšuje své „gamerské“ ambice. Po speciálním prohlížeči si pořídila herní engine

Živě.cz - 21 Leden, 2021 - 13:50
Opera není zrovna jméno, které by se objevovalo v herním světě, ale dost možná brzy bude. Po prohlížeči Opera GX, který byl představen před necelými dvěma lety a je určen speciálně pro hráče, firma oznámila, že zakoupila společnost YoYo Games, výrobce herního enginu GameMaker Studio 2. Kvůli hraní ...
Kategorie: IT News

Raspberry Pi Pico – jednočipový počítač za 4 dolary

AbcLinuxu [zprávičky] - 21 Leden, 2021 - 13:26
Rodina počítačů Raspberry Pi se rozšířila o jednočipový počítač Raspberry Pi Pico v ceně 4 dolary s vlastním procesorem RP2040. Představení na YouTube.
Kategorie: GNU/Linux & BSD

Raspberry Pi Pico je jednočipový počítač, který koupíte jen za sto korun

Živě.cz - 21 Leden, 2021 - 12:45
Raspberry Pi Foundation se pouští do nových vod. Po čtyřech generacích plnotučných minipočítačů nadace připravila první jednočipový počítač. Nový microcontroller dokonce postavila na čipu vlastního návrhu nazvaném RP2040. Novinka RPi Pico nerozjede velké operační systémy, bude sloužit ...
Kategorie: IT News

Importance of Application Security and Customer Data Protection to a Startup

The Hacker News - 21 Leden, 2021 - 12:09
When you are a startup, there are umpteen things that demand your attention. You must give your hundred percent (probably even more!) to work effectively and efficiently with the limited resources. Understandably, the application security importance may be pushed at the bottom of your things-to-do list. One other reason to ignore web application protectioncould be your belief that only large
Kategorie: Hacking & Security
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