je internetový portál zaměřený na počítačovou bezpečnost, hacking, anonymitu, počítačové sítě, programování, šifrování, exploity, Linux a BSD systémy. Provozuje spoustu zajímavých služeb a podporuje příznivce v zajímavých projektech.


Cyclops Ransomware Gang Offers Go-Based Info Stealer to Cybercriminals

The Hacker News - 1 hodina 42 min zpět
Threat actors associated with the Cyclops ransomware have been observed offering an information stealer malware that's designed to capture sensitive data from infected hosts. "The threat actor behind this [ransomware-as-a-service] promotes its offering on forums," Uptycs said in a new report. "There it requests a share of profits from those engaging in malicious activities using its malware." Ravie Lakshmanan Security / Data Security37.09024 -95.7128918.780006163821156 -130.869141 65.400473836178847 -60.556641
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

Chinese PostalFurious Gang Strikes UAE Users with Sneaky SMS Phishing Scheme

The Hacker News - 4 hodiny 9 min zpět
A Chinese-speaking phishing gang dubbed PostalFurious has been linked to a new SMS campaign that's targeting users in the U.A.E. by masquerading as postal services and toll operators, per Group-IB. The fraudulent scheme entails sending users bogus text messages asking them to pay a vehicle trip fee to avoid additional fines. The messages also contain a shortened URL to conceal the actual Ravie Lakshmanan
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

Zyxel Firewalls Under Attack! Urgent Patching Required

The Hacker News - 4 hodiny 23 min zpět
The U.S. Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) on Monday placed two recently disclosed flaws in Zyxel firewalls to its Known Exploited Vulnerabilities (KEV) catalog, based on evidence of active exploitation. The vulnerabilities, tracked as CVE-2023-33009 and CVE-2023-33010, are buffer overflow vulnerabilities that could enable an unauthenticated attacker to cause a Ravie Lakshmanan Security / Vulnerability37.09024 -95.7128918.780006163821156 -130.869141 65.400473836178847 -60.556641
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

Microsoft: Lace Tempest Hackers Behind Active Exploitation of MOVEit Transfer App

The Hacker News - 5 Červen, 2023 - 14:03
Microsoft has officially linked the ongoing active exploitation of a critical flaw in the Progress Software MOVEit Transfer application to a threat actor it tracks as Lace Tempest. "Exploitation is often followed by deployment of a web shell with data exfiltration capabilities," the Microsoft Threat Intelligence team said in a series of tweets today. "CVE-2023-34362 allows attackers to Ravie Lakshmanan Day / Cyber Attack37.09024 -95.7128918.780006163821156 -130.869141 65.400473836178847 -60.556641
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

The Annual Report: 2024 Plans and Priorities for SaaS Security

The Hacker News - 5 Červen, 2023 - 13:55
Over 55% of security executives report that they have experienced a SaaS security incident in the past two years — ranging from data leaks and data breaches to SaaS ransomware and malicious apps (as seen in figures 1 and 2). Figure 1. How many organizations have experienced a SaaS security incident within the past two years The SaaS Security Survey Report: Plans and Priorities for 2024, The Hacker News Security / Cyber Threat37.09024 -95.7128918.780006163821156 -130.869141 65.400473836178847 -60.556641
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

Top NAS Devices Are Being Targeted by This Dangerous Malware - 5 Červen, 2023 - 13:00
IoT cybersecurity company Sternum has identified a security vulnerability affecting Zyxel Networks' Linux-operated NAS drives, including NAS326, NAS540, and NAS542 models, running on firmware version 5.21.
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

Ubuntu Core as an Immutable Linux Desktop Base - 5 Červen, 2023 - 13:00
Canonical began the development of Ubuntu Core in 2014, to create a fully-containerised platform for IoT. In Ubuntu Core, we use the same kernel container technology that Docker and LXC are built on, to put every component of the system into a secure sandbox, with well-defined upgrade and rollback.
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

Satacom delivers browser extension that steals cryptocurrency

Kaspersky Securelist - 5 Červen, 2023 - 12:00

Satacom downloader, also known as LegionLoader, is a renowned malware family that emerged in 2019. It is known to use the technique of querying DNS servers to obtain the base64-encoded URL in order to receive the next stage of another malware family currently distributed by Satacom. The Satacom malware is delivered via third-party websites. Some of these sites do not deliver Satacom themselves, but use legitimate advertising plugins that the attackers abuse to inject malicious ads into the webpages. The malicious links or ads on the sites redirect users to malicious sites such as fake file-sharing services.

In this report we cover a recent malware distribution campaign related to the Satacom downloader. The main purpose of the malware that is dropped by the Satacom downloader is to steal BTC from the victim’s account by performing web injections into targeted cryptocurrency websites. The malware attempts to do this by installing an extension for Chromium-based web browsers, which later communicates with its C2 server, whose address is stored in the BTC transaction data.

The malicious extension has various JS scripts to perform browser manipulations while the user is browsing the targeted websites, including enumeration and manipulation with cryptocurrency websites. It also has the ability to manipulate the appearance of some email services, such as Gmail, Hotmail and Yahoo, in order to hide its activity with the victim’s cryptocurrencies shown in the email notifications.

Satacom technical analysis

The initial infection begins with a ZIP archive file. It is downloaded from a website that appears to mimic a software portal that allows the user to download their desired (often cracked) software for free. The archive contains several legitimate DLLs and a malicious Setup.exe file that the user needs to execute manually to initiate the infection chain.

Various types of websites are used to spread the malware. Some of them are malicious websites with a hardcoded download link, while others have the “Download” button injected through a legitimate ad plugin. In this case, even legitimate websites may have a malicious “Download” link displayed on the webpage. At the time of writing, we saw the QUADS plugin being abused to deliver Satacom.

Websites with embedded QUADS ad plugin

The plugin is abused in the same way that other advertising networks are abused for malvertising purposes: the attackers promote ads that look like a “Download” button and redirect users to the attackers’ websites.

WP QUADS ad plugin within the website’s content

After the user clicks on the download button or link, there’s a chain of redirects that automatically takes them through various servers to reach a website masquerading as a file-sharing service to distribute the malware. In the screenshot below, we can see examples of websites that are the final destinations of the redirection chains.

Fake ‘file-sharing’ services

After the user downloads and extracts the ZIP archive, which is about 7MB in size, a few binaries, EXE and DLL files are revealed. The DLLs are legitimate libraries, but the ‘Setup.exe’ file is a malicious binary. It is about 450MB, but is inflated with null bytes to make it harder to analyze. The original size of the file without the added null bytes is about 5MB and it is an Inno Setup type file.

Null bytes added to the PE file

Inno Setup installers usually work as follows: at runtime the binary extracts a child installer to a temporary folder with the name ‘Setup.tmp’. Then it runs the child installer ‘Setup.tmp’ file that needs to communicate with the primary installer with arguments pointing to the location of the original ‘Setup.exe’ and its packages in order to retrieve the BIN data inside the ‘Setup.exe’ file for the next step of the installation.

In the case of the Satacom installer, the Setup.tmp file, once running, creates a new PE DLL file in the Temp directory. After the DLL is created, the child installer loads it into itself and runs a function from the DLL.

It then decrypts the payload of Satacom and creates a new sub-process of ‘explorer.exe’ in order to inject the malware into the ‘explorer.exe’ process.

Based on the behavior we observed, we can conclude that the malware performs a common process injection technique on the remote ‘explorer.exe’ process called process hollowing. This is a known technique used to evade detection by AV applications.

The malicious payload that’s injected into the ‘explorer.exe’ process uses the RC4 encryption implementation to decrypt its configuration data, communication strings and data for the other dropped binaries on the victim’s machine. The encrypted data is stored inside the malicious payload.

The malware uses different hardcoded keys to decrypt the data at each step. There are four different RC4 keys that the malware uses to perform its actions, first decrypting the HEX string data to use it for its initial communication purposes.

RC4 keys (left pane) and encrypted HEX strings (right pane)

In the screenshot above, the left pane shows the four RC4 hardcoded keys as HEX strings, and in the right pane we can see the HEX strings that are decrypted using the RC4 ‘config_strings’ key to get the strings for the first initialization of communication with the C2. If we decrypt the strings ourselves using the key, we get the result shown in the screenshot.

Once the HEX strings are decrypted, ‘explorer.exe’ initiates its first communication. To do so, it performs a DNS request to don-dns[.]com (a decrypted HEX string) through Google DNS (, another decrypted string) and it queries for the TXT record.

DNS query for TXT record through Google to don-dns[.]com

Once the request is complete, the DNS TXT record is received as another base64-encoded RC4-encrypted string: “ft/gGGt4vm96E/jp”. Since we have all of the RC4 keys, we can try to decrypt the string with the ‘dns_RC4_key’ and get another URL as a result. This URL is where the payload is actually downloaded from.

Decrypted string of TXT record

The payload: malicious browser extension

The Satacom downloader downloads various binaries to the victim’s machine. In this campaign we observed a PowerShell script being downloaded that installs a malicious Chromium-based browser extension that targets Google Chrome, Brave and Opera.

The extension installation script is responsible for downloading the extension in a ZIP archive file from a third-party website server. The PowerShell script downloads the archived file to the computer’s Temp directory and then extracts it to a folder inside the Temp directory.

After that, the script searches for the possible locations of shortcuts for each of the targeted browsers in such places as Desktop, Quick Launch and Start Menu. It also configures the locations of the browsers’ installation files and the location of the extension on the computer.

Finally, the PS script recursively searches for any link (.LNK) file in the above locations and modifies the “Target” parameter for all existing browser shortcuts with the flag “–load-extension=[pathOfExtension]” so that the shortcut will load the browser with the malicious extension installed.

Chrome shortcut with the extension parameter

After performing this action, the script closes any browser processes that may be running on the machine, so that the next time the victim opens the browser, the extension will be loaded into the browser and run while the user is browsing the internet.

This extension installation technique allows the threat actors to add the addon to the victim’s browser without their knowledge and without uploading it to the official extension stores, such as the Chrome Store, which requires the addon to meet the store’s requirements.

Extension installation PowerShell script

Malicious extension analysis

After installation of the extension, we can analyze its functionality and features by checking specific files stored in the extension’s directory. If we take a look at the first lines of the ‘manifest.json’ file, we’ll see that the extension disguises itself by naming the addon “Google Drive,” so even when the user accesses the browser addons, the only thing they will see is an addon named “Google Drive”, which looks like just another standard Google extension installed inside the browser.

The manifest.json file settings

Another malicious extension file that always runs in the background when the user is browsing is ‘background.js’, which is responsible for initializing communication with the C2. If we take a closer look at the JavaScript code, we’ll find an interesting function call at the bottom of the script with a string variable that is the address of a bitcoin wallet.

Background.js script snippet

Looking at the script’s code, we can conclude that the extension is about to fetch another string from the hardcoded URL, into which the script inserts the bitcoin address. The JavaScript receives data in JSON format, which shows the wallet’s transaction activity, and then looks for a specific string within the latest transaction details.

JSON of the transaction details

There are two strings on the page that contain the C2 address. The “script” string is a HEX string that contains the C2 host of the malware, and the “addr” string is the Base58-encoded C2 address. The reason for using the last cryptocurrency transaction of a specific wallet to retrieve the C2 address is that the server address can be changed by the threat actors at any time. Moreover, this trick makes it harder to disable the malware’s communication with its C2 server, since disabling wallets is much more difficult than blocking or banning IPs or domains. If the C2 server is blocked or taken down, the threat actors can simply change the ‘script’ or ‘addr’ string to a different C2 server by performing a new transaction. And since the extension always checks these strings to retrieve the C2, it will always ask for the new one if it’s ever changed.

Decoded C2 address from the transaction details

The extension has several other scripts that are responsible for initializing the received commands and become functional after the C2 address is retrieved, because the scripts need to obtain some important information from the C2. For example, the C2 holds the BTC address that will be used when the BTC is transferred from the victim’s wallet to the threat actor’s wallet.

Threat actor’s BTC wallet address

To get hold of the victim’s cryptocurrency, the threat actors use web injects on the targeted websites. The web inject script is also provided by the C2 after the extension contacts it. In the following screenshot, we can see the ‘injections.js’ script from the extension, which fetches the web inject script from the C2 server.

The injections.js script

After the addon contacts the C2 server – extracted as mentioned above – the server responds with the web inject script that will be used on the targeted websites.

Webinject script from C2 server

If we take a closer look at the script, we can see that the threat actors are targeting various websites. In the version of the script shown above we can see that it targets Coinbase, Bybit, KuCoin, Huobi and Binance users.

Since the script within the C2 can be changed at any time, the threat actors can add or remove other web injection targets, as well as start targeting cryptocurrencies other than BTC, which makes this extension pretty dynamic and allows threat actors to control the malicious extension by changing the scripts.

If we look at the script, we can see that the extension performs various actions on the targeted websites. For example, it has the ability to retrieve the victims’ addresses, obtain account information, bypass 2FA, and much more. Moreover, it’s capable of transferring BTC currency from the victim’s wallet to the attackers’ wallet.

Functions from the web inject script

Looking at the full web inject script, we can conclude that the idea behind it is to steal BTC currencies from victims who have the malicious extension installed. The extension performs various actions on the account in order to remotely control it using the web inject scripts, and eventually the extension tries to withdraw the BTC currency to the threat actors’ wallet. To circumvent the 2FA settings for transactions, the web inject script uses 2FA bypass techniques.

Snippet of the BTC withdrawal function from the web inject script

Before stealing the cryptocurrency, the extension communicates with the C2 server to get the minimum BTC value. It then compares this value with the actual amount of money in the target wallet. If the wallet contains less cryptocurrency than the minimum amount received from the C2, it doesn’t withdraw any cryptocurrency from it.

Minimum amount threshold from C2

The script also performs several other checks before stealing the BTC currency. For example, it also checks the BTC to USD exchange rate.

When the amount of BTC in the target wallet meets the C2 checks, the script performs the withdrawal function to steal the BTC currency from the victim.

Performing balance check

In addition to stealing BTC, the malicious extension performs additional actions to hide its activity.

For example, the malicious extension contains scripts that target three different email services: Gmail, Hotmail and Yahoo. The idea behind the scripts is to hide the email confirmation of the transaction performed by the malicious extension.

Each script makes visual changes to the emails once the victim reaches the email service’s page. It searches for pre-defined email titles and content, and when it finds them, it simply hides them from the victim by injecting HTML code into the message body. As a result, the victim is unaware that a specific transaction transferring crypto currency to the threat actors’ wallet was made.

Extension JS targeting Gmail

In addition, the extension can manipulate email threads from the targeted websites, so if the victim opens a thread from, for example, Binance, it can change the content of the emails and display a fake email thread that looks exactly like the real one. It also contains a placeholder for desired strings that the extension can inject into the content of the message page.

Fake email thread template

The malicious extension has many other JavaScripts and it’s capable of performing additional actions. For example, it can extract information through the browser, such as the system information, cookies, browser history, screenshots of opened tabs, and even receive commands from the C2 server.

JavaScripts: requesting commands from the C2 (left pane) and taking screenshots (right pane)

The purpose of the extension is to steal BTC and manipulate targeted cryptocurrency websites and email services to make the malware as stealthy as possible, so the victim doesn’t notice any information about the fraudulent transactions. The extension can update its functionality due to the technique used to retrieve the C2 server via the last transaction of a specific BTC wallet, which can be modified at any time by making another transaction to this wallet. This allows the threat actors to change the domain URL to a different one in case it’s banned or blocked by antivirus vendors.


This campaign targets individual users around the world. According to our telemetry, in Q1 2023 users in the following countries were most frequently infected: Brazil, Algeria, Turkey, Vietnam, Indonesia, India, Egypt, Mexico.


Satacom is a downloader that is still running campaigns and being developed by the threat actor behind it. This threat actor continues to distribute malware families using various techniques, such as ad injection via ad plugins for WordPress websites.

The recently distributed malware, which is a side-loaded extension for Chromium-based browsers, performs actions in the browser to manipulate the content of the targeted cryptocurrency website. The main purpose of this malicious extension is to steal cryptocurrency from victims and transfer it to the threat actors’ wallet.

Moreover, since it is a browser extension, it can be installed in Chromium-based browsers on various platforms. Although the installation of the malicious extension and the infection chain described in this article are Windows-specific, if the threat actors want to target Linux and macOS users, they could easily do so, provided the victims use Chromium-based browsers.

Appendix I – Indicators of Compromise

Satacom files

Satacom DNS

Satacom C2

Hosted PS scripts

Malicious extension ZIP

Malicious extension CC

Hosted Satacom installer ZIP files

Redirectors to Satacom installer

Appendix II – MITRE ATT&CK Mapping

This table contains all the TTPs identified during analysis of the activity described in this report.

Tactic Technique Technique Name Initial Access User Execution: Malicious Link
User Execution: Malicious File T1204.001
T1204.002 Execution User Execution: Malicious File
Command and Scripting Interpreter: PowerShell T1204.002
T1059.001 Persistence Shortcut Modification
Browser Extensions T1547.009
T1176 Defense Evasion Process Injection T1055.012 Credential Access Credentials from Password Stores
Steal Web Session Cookie
Unsecured CredentialsMulti-Factor Authentication Interception T1555.003
T1552T1111 Discovery Account Discovery
Software Discovery
Security Software Discovery T1087
T1518.001 Collection Automated Collection
Screen Capture
Credentials from Password Stores
Browser Session Hijacking T1119
T1185 Command and Control Application Layer Protocol: Web Protocols
Application Layer Protocol: DNS
Dynamic Resolution T1071.001
T1568 Exfiltration Exfiltration Over C2 Channel T1041

Magento, WooCommerce, WordPress, and Shopify Exploited in Web Skimmer Attack

The Hacker News - 5 Červen, 2023 - 08:29
Cybersecurity researchers have unearthed a new ongoing Magecart-style web skimmer campaign that's designed to steal personally identifiable information (PII) and credit card data from e-commerce websites. A noteworthy aspect that sets it apart from other Magecart campaigns is that the hijacked sites further serve as "makeshift" command-and-control (C2) servers, using the cover to facilitate the Ravie Lakshmanan Security / Magecart37.09024 -95.7128918.780006163821156 -130.869141 65.400473836178847 -60.556641
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

Brazilian Cybercriminals Using LOLBaS and CMD Scripts to Drain Bank Accounts

The Hacker News - 5 Červen, 2023 - 06:48
An unknown cybercrime threat actor has been observed targeting Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking victims to compromise online banking accounts in Mexico, Peru, and Portugal. "This threat actor employs tactics such as LOLBaS (living-off-the-land binaries and scripts), along with CMD-based scripts to carry out its malicious activities," the BlackBerry Research and Intelligence Team said in a reportRavie Lakshmanan Security / Malware37.09024 -95.7128918.780006163821156 -130.869141 65.400473836178847 -60.556641
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

Alarming Surge in TrueBot Activity Revealed with New Delivery Vectors

The Hacker News - 5 Červen, 2023 - 06:31
A surge in TrueBot activity was observed in May 2023, cybersecurity researchers disclosed. "TrueBot is a downloader trojan botnet that uses command and control servers to collect information on compromised systems and uses that compromised system as a launching point for further attacks," VMware's Fae Carlisle said. Active since at least 2017, TrueBot is linked to a group known as Silence that'sRavie Lakshmanan / Cyber Threat37.09024 -95.7128918.780006163821156 -130.869141 65.400473836178847 -60.556641
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

Kali Linux 2023.2 Released with 13 New Tools, Pre-Built HyperV Image - 4 Červen, 2023 - 13:00
Kali Linux 2023.2, the second version of 2023, is now available with a pre-built Hyper-V image and thirteen new tools, including the Evilginx framework for stealing credentials and session cookies.
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

New Linux Ransomware Strain BlackSuit Shows Striking Similarities to Royal - 4 Červen, 2023 - 13:00
An analysis of the Linux variant of a new ransomware strain called BlackSuit has covered significant similarities with another ransomware family called Royal .
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

Critical LibreOffice Code Execution Vuln Fixed - 3 Červen, 2023 - 13:00
An Improper Validation of Array Index vulnerability (CVE-2023-0950) was discovered in the spreadsheet component of The Document Foundation LibreOffice 7.4 versions prior to 7.4.6 and 7.5 versions prior to 7.5.1. With a low attack complexity, no privileges or user interaction required to exploit, and a high confidentiality, integrity and availability impact, this bug has received a National Vulnerability Database (NVD) severity rating of ''Critical''.
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

Multiple Easily Exploitable OpenSSL DoS Bugs Fixed - 3 Červen, 2023 - 13:00
Multiple important denial of service (DoS) vulnerabilities (CVE-2023-0464 and CVE-2023-2650) have been discovered in the OpenSSL Secure Sockets Layer toolkit. These bugs are easy to exploit and have a high availability impact.
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

New Linux Ransomware Strain BlackSuit Shows Striking Similarities to Royal

The Hacker News - 3 Červen, 2023 - 10:20
An analysis of the Linux variant of a new ransomware strain called BlackSuit has covered significant similarities with another ransomware family called Royal. Trend Micro, which examined an x64 VMware ESXi version targeting Linux machines, said it identified an "extremely high degree of similarity" between Royal and BlackSuit. "In fact, they're nearly identical, with 98% similarities in Ravie Lakshmanan Security / Linux37.09024 -95.7128918.780006163821156 -130.869141 65.400473836178847 -60.556641
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

Cloud Security Tops Concerns for Cybersecurity Leaders: EC-Council's Certified CISO Hall of Fame Report 2023

The Hacker News - 3 Červen, 2023 - 10:10
A survey of global cybersecurity leaders through the 2023 Certified CISO Hall of Fame Report commissioned by the EC-Council identified 4 primary areas of grave concern: cloud security, data security, security governance, and lack of cybersecurity talent. EC-Council, the global leader in cybersecurity education and training, released its Certified Chief Information Security Officer Hall of Fame The Hacker News / Cybersecurity37.09024 -95.7128918.780006163821156 -130.869141 65.400473836178847 -60.556641
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

FTC Slams Amazon with $30.8M Fine for Privacy Violations Involving Alexa and Ring

The Hacker News - 3 Červen, 2023 - 10:05
The U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has fined Amazon a cumulative $30.8 million over a series of privacy lapses regarding its Alexa assistant and Ring security cameras. This comprises a $25 million penalty for breaching children's privacy laws by retaining their Alexa voice recordings for indefinite time periods and preventing parents from exercising their deletion rights. "Amazon's history Ravie Lakshmanan / Technology37.09024 -95.7128918.780006163821156 -130.869141 65.400473836178847 -60.556641
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

Researchers claim Windows “backdoor” affects hundreds of Gigabyte motherboards

Sophos Naked Security - 2 Červen, 2023 - 20:56
It's a backdoor, Jim, but not as we know it... here's a sober look at this issue.
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