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Gelsinger: Vsadil jsem celou firmu na proces 18A

CD-R server - 1 Březen, 2024 - 00:00
Pat Gelsinger zcela vážně konstatoval, že se jakožto CEO Intelu rozhodl vsadit celou firmu na jedinou kartu: Vlastní 1,8 nm (18A) proces…
Kategorie: IT News

Největší vizionář planety: Jen-Hsun Huang, zakladatel společnosti Nvidia

ROOT.cz - 1 Březen, 2024 - 00:00
Vypracovat se z nuly, je úctyhodné. Posouvat přitom technologický vývoj ještě větší. Jak budou Jen-Hsun Huanga jednou hodnotit historikové, je těžké předjímat, svoji stopu v předivu lidstva ale už má.
Kategorie: GNU/Linux & BSD

Turns out cops are super interested in subpoenaing suspects' push notifications

The Register - Anti-Virus - 29 Únor, 2024 - 23:30
Those little popups may reveal location, device details, IP address, and more

More than 130 petitions seeking access to push notification metadata have been filed in US courts, according to a Washington Post investigation – a finding that underscores the lack of privacy protection available to users of mobile devices.…

Kategorie: Viry a Červi

White House goes to court, not Congress, to renew warrantless spy powers

The Register - Anti-Virus - 29 Únor, 2024 - 22:44
Choose your own FISA Section 702 adventure: End-run around lawmakers or business as usual?

The Biden Administration has asked a court, rather than Congress, to renew controversial warrantless surveillance powers used by American intelligence and due to expire within weeks. It's a move that is either business as usual or an end-run around spying reforms, depending on who in Washington you believe.…

Kategorie: Viry a Červi

Gene Silencing Slashes Cholesterol in Mice—No Gene Edits Required

Singularity HUB - 29 Únor, 2024 - 22:26

With just one shot, scientists have slashed cholesterol levels in mice. The treatment lasted for at least half their lives.

The shot may sound like gene editing, but it’s not. Instead, it relies on an up-and-coming method to control genetic activity—without directly changing DNA letters. Called “epigenetic editing,” the technology targets the molecular machinery that switches genes on or off.

Rather than rewriting genetic letters, which can cause unintended DNA swaps, epigenetic editing could potentially be safer as it leaves the cell’s original DNA sequences intact. Scientists have long eyed the method as an alternative to CRISPR-based editing to control genetic activity. But so far, it has only been proven to work in cells grown in petri dishes.

The new study, published this week in Nature, is a first proof of concept that the strategy also works inside the body. With just a single dose of the epigenetic editor infused into the bloodstream, the mice’s cholesterol levels rapidly dropped, and stayed low for nearly a year without notable side effects.

High cholesterol is a major risk factor for heart attacks, strokes, and blood vessel diseases. Millions of people rely on daily medication to keep its levels in check, often for years or even decades. A simple, long-lasting shot could be a potential life-changer.

“The advantage here is that it’s a one-and-done treatment, instead of taking pills every day,” study author Dr. Angelo Lombardo at the San Raffaele Scientific Institute told Nature.

Beyond cholesterol, the results showcase the potential of epigenetic editing as a powerful emerging tool to tackle a wide range of diseases, including cancer.

To Dr. Henriette O’Geen at the University of California, Davis, it’s “the beginning of an era of getting away from cutting DNA” but still silencing genes that cause disease, paving the way for a new family of cures.

Leveling Up

Gene editing is revolutionizing biomedical science, with CRISPR-Cas9 leading the charge. In the last few months, the United Kingdom and the US have both given the green light for a CRISPR-based gene editing therapy for sickle cell disease and beta thalassemia.

These therapies work by replacing a dysfunctional gene with a healthy version. While effective, this requires cutting through DNA strands, which could lead to unexpected snips elsewhere in the genome. Some have even dubbed CRISPR-Cas9 a type of “genomic vandalism.”

Editing the epigenome sidesteps these problems.

Literally meaning “above” the genome, epigenetics is the process by which cells control gene expression. It’s how cells form different identities—becoming, for example, brain, liver, or heart cells—during early development, even though all cells harbor the same genetic blueprint. Epigenetics also connects environmental factors—such as diet—with gene expression by flexibly controlling gene activity.

All this relies on myriad chemical “tags” that mark our genes. Each tag has a specific function. Methylation, for example, shuts a gene down. Like sticky notes, the tags can be easily added or removed with the help of their designated proteins—without mutating DNA sequences—making it an intriguing way to manipulate gene expression.

Unfortunately, the epigenome’s flexibility could also be its downfall for designing a long-term treatment.

When cells divide, they hold onto all their DNA—including any edited changes. However, epigenetic tags are often wiped out, allowing new cells to start with a clean slate. It’s not so problematic in cells that normally don’t divide once mature—for example, neurons. But for cells that constantly renew, such as liver cells, any epigenetic edits could rapidly dwindle.

Researchers have long debated whether epigenetic editing is durable enough to work as a drug. The new study took the concern head on by targeting a gene highly expressed in the liver.

Teamwork

Meet PCSK9, a protein that keeps low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or “bad cholesterol,” in check. Its gene has long been in the crosshairs for lowering cholesterol in both pharmaceutical and gene editing studies, making it a perfect target for epigenetic control.

“It’s a well-known gene that needs to be shut off to decrease the level of cholesterol in the blood,” said Lombardo.

The end goal is to artificially methylate the gene and thus silence it. The team first turned to a family of designer molecules called zinc-finger proteins. Before the advent of CRISPR-based tools, these were a favorite for manipulating genetic activity.

Zinc-finger proteins can be designed to specifically home in on genetic sequences like a bloodhound. After screening many possibilities, the team found an efficient candidate that specifically targets PCSK9 in liver cells. They then linked this “carrier” to three protein fragments that collaborate to methylate DNA.

The fragments were inspired by a group of natural epigenetic editors that spring to life during early embryo development. Relics of past infections, our genome has viral sequences dotted throughout that are passed down through generations. Methylation silences this viral genetic “junk,” with effects often lasting an entire lifetime. In other words, nature has already come up with a long-lasting epigenetic editor, and the team tapped into its genius solution.

To deliver the editor, the researchers encoded the protein sequences into a single designer mRNA sequence—which the cells can use to produce new copies of the proteins, like in mRNA vaccines—and encapsulated it in a custom nanoparticle. Once injected into mice, the nanoparticles made their way into the liver and released their payloads. Liver cells rapidly adjusted to the new command and made the proteins that shut down PCSK9 expression.

In just two months, the mice’s PCSK9 protein levels dropped by 75 percent. The animals’ cholesterol also rapidly decreased and stayed low until the end of the study nearly a year later. The actual duration could be far longer.

Unlike gene editing, the strategy is hit-and-run, explained Lombardo. The epigenetic editors didn’t stay around inside the cell, but their therapeutic effects lingered.

As a stress test, the team performed a surgical procedure causing the liver cells to divide. This could potentially wipe out the edit. But they found it lasted multiple generations, suggesting the edited cells formed a “memory” of sorts that is heritable.

Whether these long-lasting results would translate to humans is unknown. We have far longer lifespans compared to mice and may require multiple shots. Specific aspects of the epigenetic editor also need to be reworked to better tailor them for human genes.

Meanwhile, other attempts at slashing high cholesterol levels using base editing—a type of gene editing—have already shown promise in a small clinical trial.

But the study adds to the burgeoning field of epigenetic editors. About a dozen startups are focusing on the strategy to develop therapies for a wide range of diseases, with one already in clinical trials to combat stubborn cancers.

As far as they know, the scientists believe it’s the first time someone has shown a one-shot approach can lead to long-lasting epigenetic effects in living animals, Lombardo said. “It opens up the possibility of using the platform more broadly.”

Image Credit: Google DeepMind / Unsplash

Kategorie: Transhumanismus

Chinese 'connected' cars are a national security threat, says Biden

The Register - Anti-Virus - 29 Únor, 2024 - 20:01
China's automakers don't sell in America, but the Feds are still going to investigate whether they're a threat

Concerned over the chance that Chinese-made cars could pose a future threat to national security, Biden's administration is proposing plans to probe potential threats posed by "connected" vehicles made in the Middle Kingdom.…

Kategorie: Viry a Červi

Revoluce na obzoru. Některé aktualizace pro Windows 11 se obejdou bez restartu počítače

Živě.cz - 29 Únor, 2024 - 18:45
Microsoft testuje metodu hotpatching pro Windows 11 •Umožňuje bezpečnostním aktualizacím rychlou instalaci •Instalace je provedena za běhu a nevyžaduje restart počítače
Kategorie: IT News

RECENZE: ASUS TUF A620M-PLUS WIFI a změna paradigmatu od AMD

CD-R server - 29 Únor, 2024 - 18:00
AMD Ryzen 5 8500G kombinuje Zen4 a Zen4c jádra, podíváme se, jak se mu daří na ASUS desce s A620 čipsetem.
Kategorie: IT News

Ransomware gangs are paying attention to infostealers, so why aren't you?

The Register - Anti-Virus - 29 Únor, 2024 - 17:27
Analysts warn of big leap in cred-harvesting malware activity last year

There appears to be an uptick in interest among cybercriminals in infostealers – malware designed to swipe online account passwords, financial info, and other sensitive data from infected PCs – as a relatively cheap and easy way to get a foothold in organizations' IT environments to deploy devastating ransomware.…

Kategorie: Viry a Červi

WinRAR 7.0 si troufne na opravdu velké soubory a končí se starým formátem RAR4

Živě.cz - 29 Únor, 2024 - 16:45
Oživeno 29. 2. 2024 | Po bezmála čtyřech měsících vývoje a zveřejnění čtyř betaverzí včera bratři Roshalové vydali WinRAR 7.0. Při ladění finální verze se nic podstatného neměnilo. WinRAR 7.0 nakonec oproti verzi 6.24 přináší 26 funkčních novinek a dvě opravy, viz seznam změn. Za zmínku stojí, že ...
Kategorie: IT News

New Silver SAML Attack Evades Golden SAML Defenses in Identity Systems

The Hacker News - 29 Únor, 2024 - 16:21
Cybersecurity researchers have disclosed a new attack technique called Silver SAML that can be successful even in cases where mitigations have been applied against Golden SAML attacks. Silver SAML “enables the exploitation of SAML to launch attacks from an identity provider like Entra ID against applications configured to use it for authentication, such as Salesforce,” Semperis Newsroomhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/[email protected]
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

Geneticky modifikovaná petúnie bude Američanům doma svítit

Živě.cz - 29 Únor, 2024 - 15:45
V USA se dostává na trh petúnie, která potmě nazelenale světélkuje • Vděčí za to genovým inženýrům, kteří do její DNA vnesli geny ze svítící asijské houby • V Evropě se tahle zahrádkářská rarita určitě pěstovat nebude.
Kategorie: IT News

Proč si předplatit Disney+? Třeba kvůli těmto seriálům

Živě.cz - 29 Únor, 2024 - 15:45
Na Disney Plus nabízí největší filmové studio nejen všechny filmy i seriály Star Wars a kompletní tvorbu od Marvela. Díky tomu, že vlastní práva na slavné kultovní seriály, se můžeme dostat k titulům, které v ČR dřív nebyly vůbec dostupné, případně byly nekompletní. A všechny mají i češtinu.
Kategorie: IT News

Warforum definitivně přišlo o českou doménu. Už ji přezval někdo jiný

Živě.cz - 29 Únor, 2024 - 14:45
Oživeno 29. února | Doména Warforum.cz již od 22. února není v karanténě, původnímu držiteli „Isaacu Turgeonovi“ propadla a CZ.NIC ji vyřadil z DNS zóny. A hned krátce nato si ji zaregistroval Václav Forejt. Jestli je nějak spřízněný s provozovatelem Warfora, není jasné. Doména je zatím pouze ...
Kategorie: IT News

Meta's pay-or-consent model hides 'massive illegal data processing ops': lawsuit

The Register - Anti-Virus - 29 Únor, 2024 - 14:00
GDPR claim alleges Facebook parent's 'commercial surveillance practices are fundamentally illegal'

Consumer groups are filing legal complaints in the EU in a coordinated attempt to use data protection law to stop Meta from giving local users a "fake choice" between paying up and consenting to being profiled and tracked via data collection.…

Kategorie: Viry a Červi

AI EMO od čínské Alibaby promění fotku tváře v uvěřitelné video se skutečným hlasem

Živě.cz - 29 Únor, 2024 - 13:45
Na sklonku loňského roku se čínská Alibaba pochlubila generativní AI Animate Anyone, která dokáže rozpohybovat libovolnou statickou postavu. Teď se inženýři z Asie vrhli na tvář, mimiku a hlas. Jejich nová technologie EMO (Emote Portrait Alive) už podle svého názvu animuje libovolný portrét podle ...
Kategorie: IT News

Raspberry Pi slaví 12 let

AbcLinuxu [zprávičky] - 29 Únor, 2024 - 13:04
Jednodeskový počítač Raspberry Pi slaví 12 let. Prodej byl spuštěn 29. února 2012 (Wikipedie, 𝕏).
Kategorie: GNU/Linux & BSD
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