Viry a Červi

Apple boss demands Bloomberg Super Micro U-turn, Russian troll charged, NSA hands out cash, and more

The Register - Anti-Virus - 2 hodiny 57 min zpět
Plus, hackers find a safe haven in West Haven

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Kategorie: Viry a Červi

Spotted: Miscreants use pilfered NSA hacking tools to pwn boxes in nuke, aerospace worlds

The Register - Anti-Virus - 19 Říjen, 2018 - 22:39
High-value servers targeted by cyber-weapons dumped online by Shadow Brokers

Miscreants are using a trio of NSA hacking tools, leaked last year by the Shadow Brokers, to infect and spy on computer systems used in aerospace, nuclear energy, and other industries.…

Kategorie: Viry a Červi

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The bugs let hackers crash IoT devices, leak their information, and completely take them over.
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Trivial Post-Intrusion Attack Exploits Windows RID - 19 Říjen, 2018 - 16:22
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Kategorie: Viry a Červi

“We know you watch porn” (and here’s fake proof…) [PODCAST]

Sophos Naked Security - 19 Říjen, 2018 - 14:47
Here's Episode 6 of the Naked Security podcast... enjoy!

Serious D-Link router security flaws may never be patched

Sophos Naked Security - 19 Říjen, 2018 - 13:30
Six routers with serious security flaws are considered end of life (EOL) and may never be updated.

Apple privacy portal lets you see everything it knows about you

Sophos Naked Security - 19 Říjen, 2018 - 12:17
The Apple website's privacy and data area lets you download and correct your data.

DarkPulsar FAQ

Kaspersky Securelist - 19 Říjen, 2018 - 12:00

What’s it all about?

In March 2017, a group of hackers calling themselves “the Shadow Brokers” published a chunk of stolen data that included two frameworks: DanderSpritz and FuzzBunch. The Fuzzbunch framework contains various types of plugins designed to analyze victims, exploit vulnerabilities, schedule tasks, etc. The DanderSpritz framework is designed to examine already controlled machines and gather intelligence. In pair, it is a very powerful platform for cyber-espionage.

How was this implant discovered?

We always analyze all leaks containing malicious software to provide the best detection. The same happened after the “Lost in Translation” leak was revealed. We noticed that this leak contained a tool in the “implants” category called DarkPulsar. We analyzed this tool and understood that it is not a backdoor itself, but the administrative part only. We also noticed some magic constants in this administrative module, and having created some special signatures based on them, were able to catch the implant itself.

What exactly can this implant be used for?

This implant supports 7 commands:

The most interesting are DisableSecurity and EnableSecurity.

  • Burn – for self-deletion.
  • RawShellcode – to execute arbitrary base-independent code.
  • EDFStageUpload – Exploit Development Framework Stage Upload. Step by step it deploys DanderSpritz payloads to the victim’s memory without touching the drive. After this command is executed, the administrator can send to the victim any of the multiple DanderSpritz commands. (View details in the technical part of this report)
  • DisableSecurity – for disabling NTLM protocol security. With help of this command, the malware administrator does not need to know a valid victim username and password to successfully pass authentication – the system will interpret any arbitrary pair as valid. (View details in the technical part of this report)
  • EnableSecurite – the opposite of DisableSecurity.
  • UpgradeImplant – for installing a new version of the backdoor.
  • PingPong – for test communication.
How many victims?

We found around 50 victims, but believe that the figure was much higher when the Fuzzbunch and DanderSpritz frameworks were actively used. We think so because of the DanderSpritz interface, which allows many victims to be managed at the same time. The second point proving this suggestion is that after stopping their cyber-espionage campaign, the malware owners often delete their malware from victim computers, so the 50 victims are very probably just ones that the attackers have simply forgotten.

Which countries?

All victims were located in Russia, Iran, and Egypt, and typically Windows 2003/2008 Server was infected. Targets were related to nuclear energy, telecommunications, IT, aerospace, and R&D

What about the attack duration? Does it last long?

DarkPulsar’s creators did not skimp on resources in developing such an advanced mechanism of persistence. They also included functionality to disable NTLM protocol security for bypassing the need to enter a valid username and password during authentication. This indicates that victims infected with DarkPulsar were the targets of a long-term espionage attack.

Is the attack still active?

We think that after the “Lost In Translation” leakage the espionage campaign was stopped, but that doesn’t mean that all computers are rid of this backdoor infection. We cured all our users. As for users without our protection, we have several tips on how to check whether your system is infected and how to cure it by yourself. Note that to exploit this backdoor on infected victims, the attackers need to know the private RSA key which pairs to the public key embedded in the backdoor. It means that no one except real DarkPulsar’s managers can exploit compromised systems.

How to protect against this threat?

We can detect this threat with different technologies.

However, the standard recommendations remain the same:

  • Keep your security products up to date
  • Do not turn security product components off
  • Keep your OS updated
  • Install all security patches asap
  • Use special traffic analysis tools and pay attention to all encrypted traffic
  • Do not use weak passwords or the same password for several endpoints
  • Use complex passwords
  • Do not allow remote connections to endpoints with administration rights
  • Do not allow domain administrators to be local administrators with the same credentials

Additional mitigation strategies can be found here:

Which proactive technologies do you have to protect users against such threats?

We use machine learning, cloud technologies, emulation, and behavioral analysis in combination with anti-exploit protection to provide the best proactive protection for our clients.

Who is behind this threat?

We never engage in attribution. Our purpose is to counteract all threats, regardless of their source or destination.

How was this implant used? Was it created for stealing money or just information?

We have not seen any techniques for stealing money in this implant, but it is worth keeping in mind that this implant can run any executable code, so its functionality can be increased significantly.


Kaspersky Securelist - 19 Říjen, 2018 - 12:00

In March 2017, the ShadowBrokers published a chunk of stolen data that included two frameworks: DanderSpritz and FuzzBunch.

DanderSpritz consists entirely of plugins to gather intelligence, use exploits and examine already controlled machines. It is written in Java and provides a graphical windows interface similar to botnets administrative panels as well as a Metasploit-like console interface. It also includes its own backdoors and plugins for not-FuzzBunch-controlled victims.

DanderSprit interface

Fuzzbunch on the other hand provides a framework for different utilities to interact and work together. It contains various types of plugins designed to analyze victims, exploit vulnerabilities, schedule tasks, etc. There are three files in the plugin set from the FuzzBunch framework:

  • %pluginName%-version.fb

This is the utility file of the framework. It duplicates the header from XML and includes the plugin’s ID.

  • %pluginName%-version.exe

This executable file is launched when FuZZbuNch receives the command to do so.

  • %pluginName%-version.xml

This configuration file describes the plugin’s input and output parameters – the parameter name, its type and description of what it’s responsible for; all of these can be shown in FuzzBunch as a prompt. This file also contributes a lot to the framework’s usability, as it supports the specification of default parameters.

One of the most interesting Fuzzbunch’s categories is called ImplantConfig and includes plugins designed to control the infected machines via an implant at the post-exploitation stage. DarkPulsar is a very interesting administrative module for controlling a passive backdoor named ‘sipauth32.tsp’ that provides remote control, belonging to this category.

It supports the following commands:

  • Burn
  • RawShellcode
  • EDFStagedUpload
  • DisableSecurity
  • EnableSecurity
  • UpgradeImplant
  • PingPong

Burn, RawShellcode, UpgradeImplant, and PingPong remove the implant, run arbitrary code, upgrade the implant and check if the backdoor is installed on a remote machine, respectively. The purpose of the other commands is not that obvious and, to make it worse, the leaked framework contained only the administrative module to work with DarkPulsar’s backdoor, but not the backdoor itself.

While analyzing the administrative module, we noticed several constants that are used to encrypt the traffic between the C&C and the implant:

We thought that probably these constants should also appear in the backdoor, so we created a detection for them. Several months later we found our mysterious DarkPulsar backdoor. We later were able to find both 32- and 64-bit versions.

We found around 50 victims located in Russia, Iran and Egypt, typically infecting Windows 2003/2008 Server. Targets were related to nuclear energy, telecommunications, IT, aerospace and R&D.

DarkPulsar technical highlights

The DarkPulsar implant is a dynamic library whose payload is implemented in exported functions. These functions can be grouped as follows:

  1. Two nameless functions used to install the backdoor in the system.
  2. Functions with names related to TSPI (Telephony Service Provider Interface) operations that ensure the backdoor is in the autorun list and launched automatically.
  3. A function with a name related to SSPI (Security Support Provider Interface) operations. It implements the main malicious payload.

The implementations of the SSPI and TSPI interfaces are minimalistic: the functions that are exported by DarkPulsar have the same names as the interface functions; however, they include malicious code instead of the phone service.

The implant is installed in the system by the nameless exported function. The backdoor is launched by calling Secur32.AddSecurityPackage with administrator privileges with the path to its own library in the parameter, causing lsass.exe to load DarkPulsar as SSP/AP and to call its exported function SpLsaModeInitialize used by DarkPulsar to initialize the backdoor. In this way AddSecurityPackage is used to inject code into lsass.exe. It also adds its library name at HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Telephony\Providers

This is loaded at start by the Telephony API (TapiSrv) launched alongside the Remote Access Connection Manager (RasMan) service, setting startup type as “Automatic”. When loading the telephony service provider’s library, TapiSrv calls TSPI_lineNegotiateTSPIVersion which contains the AddSecurityPackage call to make the inject into lsass.exe.

DarkPulsar implements its payload by installing hooks for the SpAcceptLsaModeContext – function responsible for authentication. Such injects are made in several system authentication packets within the process lsass.exe and allow Darkpulsar to control authentication process based on the following protocols:

  • Msv1_0.dll – for the NTLM protocol,
  • Kerberos.dll – for the Kerberos protocol,
  • Schannel.dll – for the TLS/SSL protocols,
  • Wdigest.dll – for the Digest protocol, and
  • Lsasrv.dll –for the Negotiate protocol.

After this, Darkpulsar gets ability to embed malware traffic into system protocols. Since this network activity takes place according to standard system charts, it will only be reflected in the System process – it uses the system ports reserved for the above protocols without hindering their normal operation.

Network traffic during successful connection to DarkPulsar implant

The second advantage of controlling authentication processes is ability to bypass entering a valid username and password for obtaining access to objects that require authentication such as processes list, remote registry, file system through SMB. After Darkpulsar’s DisableSecurity command is sent, backdoor’s hooks on the victim side will always returns in the SpAcceptLsaModeContext function that passed credentials are valid. Getting that, system will provide access to protected objects to client.

Working with DarkPulsar

Darkpulsar-1.1.0.exe is the administrative interface working under the principle of “one command – one launch”. The command to be executed must be specified either in the configuration file Darkpulsar- or as command line arguments, detailing at least:

  • whether the target machine uses a 32-bit or 64-bit system;
  • protocol (SMB, NBT, SSL, RDP protocols are supported) to deliver the command and port number
  • private RSA key to decrypt the session AES key

Darkpulsar-1.1.0 was not designed as a standalone program for managing infected machines. This utility is a plugin of the Fuzzbunch framework that can manage parameters and coordinate different components. Here is how DisableSecurity command in Fuzzbunch looks like:

Below is an example of Processlist after DisableSecurity, allowing to execute any plugin without valid credentials and operating via regular system functions (remote registry service):


DanderSpritz is the framework for controlling infected machines, different from FuZZbuNch as the latter provides a limited toolkit for the post-exploitation stage with specific functions such as DisableSecurity and EnableSecurity for DarkPulsar.

For DanderSpritz works for a larger range of backdoors, using PeedleCheap in the victim to enable operators launching plugins. PeddleCheap is a plugin of DanderSpritz which can be used to configure implants and connect to infected machines. Once a connection is established all DanderSpritz post-exploitation features become available.

This is how DarkPulsar in EDFStagedUpload mode provides the opportunity to infect the victim with a more functional implant: PCDllLauncher (Fuzzbunch’s plugin) deploys the PeddleCheap implant on the victim side, and DanderSpritz provides a user-friendly post-exploitation interface. Hence, the full name of PCDllLauncher is ‘PeddleCheap DLL Launcher’.

The complete DanderSpritz usage scheme with the plugin PeddleCheap via FuZZbuNch with the plugins DarkPulsar and PCDllLauncher consists of four steps:

  1. Via FuZZbuNch, run command EDFStagedUpload to launch DarkPulsar.
  2. In DanderSpritz, run command pc_prep (PeedelCheap Preparation) to prepare the payload and the library to be launched on the implant side.
  3. In DanderSpritz, run command pc_old (which is the alias of command pc_listen -reuse -nolisten -key Default) – this sets it to wait for a socket from Pcdlllauncher.
  4. Launch Pcdlllauncher via FuZZbuNch and specify the path to the payload that has been prepared with the command pc_prep in the ImplantFilename parameter.

  5. DanderSpritz

    File System plugin


    The FuzzBunch and DanderSpritz frameworks are designed to be flexible and to extend functionality and compatibility with other tools. Each of them consists of a set of plugins designed for different tasks: while FuzzBunch plugins are responsible for reconnaissance and attacking a victim, plugins in the DanderSpritz framework are developed for managing already infected victims.

    The discovery of the DarkPulsar backdoor helped in understanding its role as a bridge between the two leaked frameworks, and how they are part of the same attacking platform designed for long-term compromise, based on DarkPulsar’s advanced abilities for persistence and stealthiness. The implementation of these capabilities, such as encapsulating its traffic into legitimate protocols and bypassing entering credentials to pass authentication, are highly professional.

    Our product can completely remove the related to this attack malware.

    Detecting malicious network activity

    When EDFStagedUpload is executed in an infected machine, a permanent connection is established, which is why traffic via port 445 appears. A pair of bound sockets also appears in lsass.exe:

    When DanderSpritz deploys PeddleCheap’s payload via the PcDllLauncher plugin, network activity increases dramatically:

    When a connection to the infected machine is terminated, network activity ceases, and only traces of the two bound sockets in lsass.exe remain:


    implant – 96f10cfa6ba24c9ecd08aa6d37993fe4
    File path – %SystemRoot%\System32\sipauth32.tsp
    Registry – HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Telephony\Providers

    You like HTTPS. We like HTTPS. Except when a quirk of TLS can smash someone's web privacy

    The Register - Anti-Virus - 19 Říjen, 2018 - 09:04
    Never-closed browsers and persistent session tickets make tracking a doddle

    Analysis  Transport Layer Security underpins much of the modern internet. It is the foundation of secure connections to HTTPS websites, for one thing. However, it can harbor a sting in its tail for those concerned about staying anonymous online.…

    Kategorie: Viry a Červi

    Talk about a curveball: Microsoft director of sports marketing fired, charged with fraud over 'fake' invoices

    The Register - Anti-Virus - 18 Říjen, 2018 - 22:05
    He tells investigators: 'I was hacked!'

    Microsoft's former director of sports marketing has been indicted on five counts of wire fraud, based on allegations that he created fake invoices to defraud the software giant and sold its property as his own.…

    Kategorie: Viry a Červi

    Equifax exec's inside trade shame: Software boss sentenced for mega-hack stock profit

    The Register - Anti-Virus - 18 Říjen, 2018 - 21:41
    Thrown in the small house rather than the big house

    An Equifax executive – who knew the biz had been hacked before it was made public and banked over $75,000 in stock trades using this inside knowledge – has avoided jail.…

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    New APT Could Signal Reemergence of Notorious Comment Crew - 18 Říjen, 2018 - 21:17
    A custom malware used in a five-pronged APT espionage campaign was largely built from the defunct Comment Crew's proprietary code.
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    Tumblr Privacy Bug Could Have Exposed Sensitive Account Data - 18 Říjen, 2018 - 17:19
    Tumblr stressed that there is no evidence the security bug was being abused or that unprotected account data was accessed.
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    GreyEnergy Spy APT Mounts Sophisticated Effort Against Critical Infrastructure - 18 Říjen, 2018 - 17:08
    The group is a successor to BlackEnergy and a subset of the TeleBots gang--and its activity is potentially a prelude to a much more destructive attack.
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    The libssh “login with no password” bug – what you need to know [VIDEO]

    Sophos Naked Security - 18 Říjen, 2018 - 16:44
    Here's a video that explains the libssh "no password needed" bug - jargon-free and in plain English. Enjoy...

    Is Google’s Android app unbundling good for security?

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    You don’t have to sequence your DNA to be identifiable by your DNA

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    If you have European ancestry, there's a 60% chance that somebody vaguely related to you can be used to find out who you are.

    Twitter publishes data on Iranian and Russian troll farms

    Sophos Naked Security - 18 Říjen, 2018 - 11:03
    Over 1m tweets show that we're suckers for funny/sarcastic/edgy, not so much for blah-blah-blah “news” spreaders.

    Decoding the Google Titan, Titan, and Titan M – that last one is the Pixel 3's security chip

    The Register - Anti-Virus - 18 Říjen, 2018 - 03:18
    Chocolate Factory opens lid, just a little, on secure boot and crypto phone coprocessor

    People in the Googleplex need to talk to each other more: the Chocolate Factory has launched a third product with “Titan” in its name, and it's only related to one of the other two bits of kit.…

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