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Is the US about to get a nationwide, privately owned, biometrics system?

Sophos Naked Security - 6 Listopad, 2018 - 13:21
Two US biometric companies have partnered to research a private, nationwide biometrics system.

Children’s apps contain an average of 7 third-party trackers, study finds

Sophos Naked Security - 6 Listopad, 2018 - 13:10
Android apps in the "Family" category had a surprisingly high number of trackers embedded in them.

CIA’s secret online network unravelled with a Google search

Sophos Naked Security - 6 Listopad, 2018 - 13:06
The US government is reeling from a catastrophic, years-long intelligence failure that compromised its internet-based covert communications.

Spam and phishing in Q3 2018

Kaspersky Securelist - 6 Listopad, 2018 - 11:01

Quarterly highlights Personal data in spam

We have often said that personal data is candy on a stick to fraudsters and must be kept safe (that is, not given out on dubious websites). It can be used to gain access to accounts and in targeted attacks and ransomware campaigns.

In Q3, we registered a surge of fraudulent emails in spam traffic. This type of scam we have already reported at the beginning of the year. A ransom (in bitcoins) is demanded  in exchange for not disclosing the “damaging evidence” concerning the recipients. The new wave of emails contained users’ actual personal data (names, passwords, phone numbers), which the scammers used to try to convince victims that they really had the information specified in the message. The spam campaign was carried out in several stages, and it is likely that the fraudsters made use of a range of personal information databases, as evidenced, for example, by the telephone number formats that varied from stage to stage.

Whereas before, the target audience was primarily English-speaking, in September we logged a spate of mailings in other languages, including German, Italian, Arabic, and Japanese.

The amount demanded by the ransomers ranged from a few hundred to several thousand dollars. To collect the payments, different Bitcoin wallets were used, which changed from mailing to mailing. In July, 17 transactions worth more than 3 BTC ($18,000 at the then exchange rate) were made to one of such wallets.

Transactions to scammers’ Bitcoin wallets

Also in Q3, we detected a malicious spam campaign aimed at corporate users. The main target was passwords (for browsers, instant messengers, email and FTP clients, cryptocurrency wallets, etc.). The cybercriminals attempted to infect victim computers with Loki Bot malware, concealing it in ISO files attached to messages. The latter were made to look like business correspondence or notifications from well-to-do companies.

Malicious spam attacks against the banking sector

The owners of the Necurs botnet, which in Q2 was caught sending malicious emails with IQY (Microsoft Excel Web Query) attachments, turned their attention to the banking sector and, like in Q2, used a non-typical file format for spam, this time PUB (Microsoft Publisher). Messages were sent to the email addresses of credit institutions in different countries, and the PUB file attachments contained Trojan loaders for downloading executable files (detected as Backdoor.Win32.RA-based) onto victim computers.

We observed that the owners of Necurs are making increasing use of various techniques to bypass security solutions and send malicious spam containing attachments with non-typical extensions so as not to arouse users’ suspicion.

New iPhone launch

Late Q3 saw the release of Apple’s latest gizmo. Unsurprisingly, it coincided with a spike in email spam from Chinese “companies” offering Apple accessories and replica gadgets. Links in such messages typically point to a recently created, generic online store. Needless to say, having transferred funds to such one-day websites, you lose your money and your goods are not arriving.

The release also went hand in hand with a slight rise in both the number of phishing schemes exploiting Apple (and its services) and messages with malicious attachments:

Classic pharma spam in a new guise

Spammers are constantly looking for ways to get round mail filters and increase the “deliverability” of their offers. To do so, they try to fabricate emails (both the contents and technical aspects) that look like messages from well-known companies and services. For example, they copy the layout of banking and other notifications and add bona fide headers in the fields that the user is sure to see.

Such techniques, typical of phishing and malicious campaigns, are being used more often in “classic spam” – for example, in messages offering prohibited medicines. For instance, this past quarter we detected messages disguised as notifications from major social networks, including LinkedIn. The messages contained a phoney link that we expected to point to a phishing form asking for personal data, but instead took us to a drug store.

This new approach is taken due to the fact that this type of spam in its traditional form has long been detectable by anti-spam solutions, so spammers started using disguises. We expect this trend to pick up steam.

Universities

Since the start of the academic year, scammers’ interest in gaining access to accounts on university websites has risen. We registered attacks against 131 universities in 16 countries worldwide. Cybercriminals want to get their hands on both personal data and academic research.

Fake login pages to personal accounts on university websites

Job search

To harvest personal data, attackers exploit the job-hunting efforts. Pages with application forms lure victims with tempting offers of careers in a big-name company, large salary, and the like.

Propagation methods

This quarter we are again focused on ways in which phishing and other illegitimate content is distributed by cybercriminals. But this time we also want to draw attention to methods that are gaining popularity and being actively exploited by attackers.

Scam notifications

Some browsers make it possible for websites to send notifications to users (for example, Push API in Chrome), and this technology has not gone unnoticed by cybercriminals. It is mainly deployed by websites that collaborate with various partner networks. With the aid of pop-up notifications, users are lured onto “partner” sites, where they are prompted to enter, for example, personal data. The owners of the resource receive a reward for every user they process.

By default, Chrome requests permission to enable notifications for each individual site, and so as to nudge the user into making an affirmative decision, the attackers state that the page cannot continue loading without a little click on the Allow button.

Having given the site permission to display notifications, many users simply forget about it, so when a pop-up message appears on the screen, they don’t always understand where it came from.

Notifications are tailored to the user’s location and displayed in the appropriate language

The danger is that notifications can appear when the user is visiting a trusted resource. This can mislead the victim as regards the source of the message: everything seems to suggest it came from the trusted site currently open. The user might see, for instance, a “notification” about a funds transfer, giveaway, or tasty offer. They all generally lead to phishing sites, online casinos, or sites with fake giveaways and paid subscriptions:

Examples of sites that open when users click on a notification

Clicking on a notification often leads to an online gift card generator, which we covered earlier in the quarter (it also works in the opposite direction: the resource may prompt to enable push notifications). Such generators offer visitors the chance to generate free gift card codes for popular online stores. The catch is that in order to get the generated codes, the visitor needs to prove their humanness by following a special link. Instead of receiving a code, the user is sent on a voyage through a long chain of partner sites with invitations to take part in giveaways, fill out forms, download stuff, sign up for paid SMS mailings, and much more.

Media

The use of media resources is a rather uncommon, yet effective way of distributing fraudulent content. This point is illustrated by the story of the quite popular WEX cryptocurrency exchange, which prior to 2017 went by the name of BTC-E. In August 2018, fake news was inserted into thematic “third tier” Russian media saying that, due to internal problems, the exchange was changing its domain name to wex.ac:

The wex.nz administration soon tweeted (its tweets are published on the exchange’s home page) that wex.ac was just another imitator and warned users about transferring funds.

But that did not stop the scammers, who released more news about the exchange moving to a new domain. This time to the .sc zone:

Instagram

Among the social media platforms used by scammers to distribute content, Instagram warrants a special mention. Only relatively recently have cybercriminals started paying attention to it. In Q3 2018, we came across many fake US Internal Revenue Service user accounts in this social network, as well as many others purporting to be an official account of one of the most widely-used Brazilian banks.

Fake IRS accounts on Instagram

Scammers not only create fakes, but seek access to popular accounts: August this year saw a wave of account hacking sweep through the social network. We observed accounts changing owners as a result of phishing attacks with “account verification” prompts – users themselves delivered their credentials on a plate in the hope of getting the cherished blue tick.

Back when scammers offered to “verify” accounts, there was no such function in the social network: the administration itself decided whom to award the sacred “badge.” Now it is possible to apply for one through the account settings.

Statistics: spam Proportion of spam in email traffic

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Proportion of spam in global email traffic, Q2 and Q3 2018 (download)

In Q3 2018, the largest share of spam was recorded in August (53.54%). The average percentage of spam in global mail traffic was 52.54%, up 2.88 p.p. against the previous reporting period.

Sources of spam by country

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Sources of spam by country, Q3 2018 (download)

The three leading source countries for spam in Q3 were the same as in Q2 2018: China is in first place (13.47%), followed by the USA (10.89%) and Germany (10.37%). Fourth place goes to Brazil (6.33%), and fifth to Vietnam (4.41%).  Argentina (2.64%) rounds off the Top 10.

Spam email size

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Spam email size, Q2 and Q3 2018 (download)

In Q3 2018, the share of very small emails (up to 2 KB) in spam fell by 5.81 p.p. to 73.36%. The percentage of emails sized 5-10 KB increased slightly compared to Q2 (+0.76 p.p.) and amounted to 6.32%. Meanwhile, the proportion of 10-20 KB emails dropped by 1.21 p.p. to 2.47%. The share of 20-50 KB spam messages remained virtually unchanged, climbing a mere 0.49 p.p. to 3.17%.

Malicious attachments: malware families

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Top 10 malicious families in mail traffic, Q3 2018 (download)

According to the results of Q3 2018, still the most common malware in mail traffic were objects assigned the verdict Exploit.Win32.CVE-2017-11882, adding 0.76 p.p. since the last quarter (11.11%). The Backdoor.Win32.Androm bot was encountered more frequently than in the previous quarter and ranked second (7.85%), while Trojan-PSW.Win32.Farei dropped to third place (5.77%). Fourth and fifth places were taken by Worm.Win32.WBVB and Backdoor.Java.QRat, respectively.

Countries targeted by malicious mailshots

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Countries targeted by malicious mailshots, Q3 2018 (download)

The Top 3 countries by number of Mail Anti-Virus triggers in Q3 remain unchanged since the start of the year: Germany took first place (9.83%), with Russia in second (6.61%) and the UK in third (6.41%). They were followed by Italy in fourth (5.76%) and Vietnam in fifth (5.53%).

Statistics: phishing

In Q3 2018, the Anti-Phishing system prevented 137,382,124 attempts to direct users to scam websites. 12.1% of all Kaspersky Lab users worldwide were subject to attack.

Geography of attacks

The country with the highest percentage of users attacked by phishing in Q3 2018 was Guatemala with 18.97% (+8.56 p.p.).

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Geography of phishing attacks, Q3 2018 (download)

Q2’s leader Brazil dropped to second place, with 18.62% of users in this country attacked during the reporting period, up 3.11 p.p. compared to Q2. Third and fourth places went to Spain (17.51%) and Venezuela (16.75%), with Portugal rounding off the Top 5 (16.01%).

Country %* Guatemala 18,97 Brazil 18,62 Spain 17,51 Venezuela 16,75 Portugal 16,01 China 15,99 Australia 15,65 Panama 15,33 Georgia 15,10 Ecuador 15,03

* Share of users on whose computers Anti-Phishing was triggered out of all Kaspersky Lab users in the country

Organizations under attack

The rating of categories of organizations attacked by phishers is based on triggers of the Anti-Phishing component on user computers. It is activated every time the user attempts to open a phishing page, either by clicking a link in an email or a social media message, or as a result of malware activity. When the component is triggered, a banner is displayed in the browser warning the user about a potential threat.
As in the previous quarter, the Global Internet Portals category was in first place, bumping its share up to 32.27% (+7.27 p.p.).

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Distribution of organizations whose users were attacked by phishers, by category, Q3 2018 (download)

Only organizations that can be combined into a general Finance category were attacked more than global Internet portals. This provisional category accounted for 34.67% of all attacks (-1.03 p.p.): banks and payment systems had respective shares of 18.26% and 9.85%; only online stores (6.56%) had to concede fourth place to IT companies (6.91%).

Conclusion

In Q3 2018, the average share of spam in global mail traffic rose by 2.88 p.p. to 52.54%, and the Anti-Phishing system prevented more than 137 million redirects to phishing sites, up 30 million against the previous reporting period.

Spammers and phishers continue to exploit big news stories. This quarter, for instance, great play was made of the release of the new iPhone. The search for channels to distribute fraudulent content also continued. Alongside an uptick in Instagram activity, we spotted fake notifications from websites and the spreading of fake news through media resources.

A separate mention should go to the expanding geography of ransomware spam, featuring the use of victims’ real personal data.

The Unprecedented Effort to Secure Election Day

LinuxSecurity.com - 6 Listopad, 2018 - 08:50
LinuxSecurity.com: After Russia's misinformation campaign rattled the 2016 United States election season, scrutiny over this year's midterms has been intense. And while foreign cybersecurity threats have so far been relatively muted, an unclassified government report obtained by The Boston Globe this week indicates more than 160 suspected election-related incidents since the beginning of August, ranging from suspicious login attempts to compromised municipal networks.
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

The OPM hack explained: Bad security practices meet China's Captain America

LinuxSecurity.com - 6 Listopad, 2018 - 08:46
LinuxSecurity.com: In April of 2015, IT staffers within the United States Office of Personnel Management (OPM), the agency that manages the government's civilian workforce, discovered that some of its personnel files had been hacked. Among the sensitive data that was exfiltrated were millions of SF-86 forms, which contain extremely personal information gathered in background checks for people seeking government security clearances, along with records of millions of people's fingerprints.
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

Online Radio Stations at Risk from Icecast Flaw

Threatpost - 5 Listopad, 2018 - 22:27
A buffer overflow bug could silence online stations.
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

Newsmaker Interview: Tom Kellermann on Hacking the Midterm Elections

Threatpost - 5 Listopad, 2018 - 18:59
Concerns over midterm election tampering reach a boiling point in the days leading up to actual voting.
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

PortSmash Side-Channel Attack Siphons Data From Intel, Other CPUs

Threatpost - 5 Listopad, 2018 - 18:56
An exploit was released for a flaw existing in a process in CPUs called Simultaneous Multithreading (SMT).
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

Passwords: Here to Stay, Despite Smart Alternatives?

Threatpost - 5 Listopad, 2018 - 18:51
"Password-killing" authentication efforts may be on a road to nowhere.
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

Private Facebook data from 81,000 accounts discovered on crime forum

Sophos Naked Security - 5 Listopad, 2018 - 14:40
Stolen data from the 81,000 accounts that appeared to be genuine included intimate exchanges between Facebook users.

FIFA, hacked again, is leaking like a sieve

Sophos Naked Security - 5 Listopad, 2018 - 14:13
Football shockers started to flow on Friday, after journalists analyzed more than 70m exfiltrated documents, totaling 3.4 terabytes of data.

DDoS útoky jsou na ústupu, kyberzločinci se soustředí na lukrativnější akce

Novinky.cz - bezpečnost - 5 Listopad, 2018 - 13:29
Na ústupu jsou útoky typu DDoS, které se ještě před pár lety těšily nebývalé popularitě. Kyberzločinci ale v posledních měsících volí stále častěji úplně jinou strategii, soustředí se na lukrativnější typy útoků – zpravidla na kryptoměny. Vyplývá to z analýzy antivirové společnosti Kaspersky Lab.
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

Should company bosses face jail for mishandling your privacy?

Sophos Naked Security - 5 Listopad, 2018 - 13:06
A proposed bill calls for executives to be jailed for not protecting consumers' data, or at least for lying about it.

PortSmash attack steals secrets from Intel chips on the side

Sophos Naked Security - 5 Listopad, 2018 - 12:46
Researchers have developed an exploit that uses a feature in Intel chips to steal secret cryptographic keys.

Monday review – the hot 22 stories of the week

Sophos Naked Security - 5 Listopad, 2018 - 11:14
Passcodes are protected by the Fifth Amendment, browsers are being made to cough up browsing history, and an exploit in Microsoft Word. Catch up with this and everything we wrote in the last seven days - it's weekly roundup time!

Hey there! How much are you worth?

Kaspersky Securelist - 5 Listopad, 2018 - 11:00

Have you ever stopped to think just how much your life is worth? I mean really think about it. For instance, let’s say you wanted to sell everything you have – your house, your car, your job, your private life, photos and home movies from your childhood, your accounts on various social media, your medical history and so on – how much would you ask for it all?

I thought about this myself and just the thought that someone else would be able to, for example, read the personal things I’ve written to friends, family and lovers on Facebook made me realize that those things are priceless. The same goes for someone getting access to my email and basically having the power to reset all my passwords for all the accounts I’ve registered using that email.

In the real non-digital world there are lots of insurance policies that cover things if they get damaged or stolen. If someone steals my car or I break my TV, I can replace them if they were insured. We don’t really have that option in the digital world, and our digital life contains some very personal and sentimental information. The big difference is that our digital lives can never be erased – what we’ve said or written, pictures we’ve sent, or orders we’ve made are basically stored forever in the hands of the service providers.

I decided to investigate the black market and see what kind of information is being sold there. We all know that you can buy drugs, weapons and stolen goods there, but you can also buy online identities. How much do you think your online identity is worth?

Hacked accounts

When investigating hacked accounts from popular services it’s almost impossible to compile valid data because there are so many black-market vendors selling this stuff. It is also difficult to verify the uniqueness of the data being sold. But one thing is certain – this is the most popular type of data being sold on the black market. When talking about data from popular services, I’m referring to things like stolen social media accounts, banking details, remote access to servers or desktops and even data from popular services like Uber, Netflix, Spotify and tons of gaming websites (Steam, PlayStation Network, etc.), dating apps, porn websites.

The most common way to steal this data is via phishing campaigns or by exploiting a web-related vulnerability such as an SQL injection vulnerability. The password dumps contain an email and password combination for the hacked services, but as we know most people reuse their passwords. So, even if a simple website has been hacked, the attackers might get access to accounts on other platforms by using the same email and password combination.

These kinds of attacks are not very sophisticated, but they are very effective. It also shows that cybercriminals are making money from hackers and hacktivists; the people selling these accounts are most likely not the people who hacked and distributed the password dump.

The price for these hacked accounts is very cheap, with most selling for about $1 per account, and if you buy in bulk, you’ll get them even cheaper.

Some vendors even give a lifetime warranty, so if one account stops working, you receive a new account for free. For example, below is a screenshot that shows a vendor selling Netflix accounts.

100 000 email and password combinations

250 000 email and password combinations

Passports and identity papers

When lurking around underground marketplaces I saw a lot of other information being traded, such as fake passports, driving licenses and ID cards/scans. This is where things get a bit more serious – most of the identity papers are not stolen, but they can be used to cause problems in the non-digital world.

People can use your identity with a fake ID card to acquire, for example, phone subscriptions, open bank accounts and so on.

Below is a screenshot of a person selling a registered Swedish passport, and the price is $4000. The same vendor was offering passports from almost all European countries.

Scammers’ toolbox

Most of the items being sold in the underground marketplaces are not new to me; they are all things the industry has been talking about for a very long time. What was interesting was the fact that stolen or fake invoices and other papers/scans such as utility bills were being sold.

People actually steal other people’s mail and collect invoices, for example, which are then used to scam other people. They will collect and organize these invoices by industry and country. The vendors then sell these scans as part of a scammer toolbox.

A scammer can use these scans to target victims in specific countries and even narrow their attacks down to gender, age and industry.

During the research I got to thinking about a friend’s (Inbar Raz) research on Tinder bots and, through my research, I managed to find links between stolen accounts and Tinder bots. These bots are used to earn even more money from stolen accounts. So, the accounts are not just sold on the black market, they are also used in other cybercriminal activities.

What’s interesting about the fake Tinder profiles is that they have the following characteristics in common that make them easy to identify:

  • Lots of matches all at once.
  • Most of the women look like super models.
  • No job title or education info.
  • Stolen Instagram pictures/images but with info stolen from Facebook accounts.
  • Scripted chat messages.

Most of the bots that I’ve researched are related to traffic redirection, clickbait, spam and things like that. So far, I haven’t seen any malware – most of the bots will try to involve you in other crime or to steal your data. Here’s an example of what it might look like.

The first step is that you’re matched with the bot. The bot doesn’t always contact you directly, but waits for you to interact with it before it replies. In some cases the introduction is scripted with some text about how it wants to show you nude photos or something similar and then it posts a link.

When you click on the link you go through several websites redirecting you in a chain. This chain does a lot of things, such as place cookies in your browser, enumerate your settings such as location, browser version and type and probably a lot more. This is done so that when you end up at the landing page they know which page to serve you. In my case, I came from a Swedish IP and the website I was offered was obviously in Swedish, which indicates that they are targeting victims globally.

These websites always have statements and quotes from other users. Most of the information used, including profile photos, name and age, is also taken from stolen accounts. The quote itself is obviously fake, but this approach looks very professional.

This particular website was asking for your email to sign up to a website which basically offered you a job. The actual campaign is called the ‘Profit Formula Scam’ and is a binary option auto-trading scam. It’s been covered in the media before, so I won’t go into any detail here.

Summary

People are generally very naive when it comes to their online identity, especially when it comes to services that don’t appear to affect their privacy in any way. I often hear people say that they don’t care if someone gets access to their account, for example, because they assume that the worst thing that can happen is that their account will be shared with someone they don’t know. But we need to understand that even if it all looks very innocent, we don’t know what the criminals do with the money they earn.

What if they are spending it on drugs or guns, which are then sold to teenagers? What if they finance platforms and servers to spread child porn? We need to understand that criminals often work together with other criminals, which means that maybe drugs are bought from the money they make from selling stolen Netflix accounts on the black market.

One of the most alarming things I noticed was how cheap everything was. Just think about the information someone could gather about you if they got access to your Facebook account – there is surely no way you would be okay with someone selling access to parts of your private life for one dollar.

But people use more than just Facebook. I would assume that most people aged between 15 and 35 have registered for over 20 different services and maybe use about 10 of them frequently. The services that you hardly ever use are a problem because you often forget that you even have an account there.

The most frequently used accounts probably include the likes of Facebook, Instagram, Skype, Snapchat, Tinder (or other dating services) email, and entertainment services such as Spotify, Netflix, HBO and YouTube. Besides this, you may have an account on a governmental or financial website such as your bank, insurance company, etc. We also need to remember that some of these services use Google or Facebook as authentication, which means you don’t use an email and password combination – you simply login with your Facebook or Google account.

SERVICE DESCRIPTION PRICE Gaming Any type of gaming account, Steam, PSN, Xbox etc. $1 per account Email Email and Password combination from various leaks. Most likely sold in bulk Various Facebook Direct access to Facebook account $1 per account Spotify Spotify premium account $2 per account Netflix Netflix account $1-5 per account Desktop Username and password for RDP services, including VNC $5-50 per account Server Username and password for telnet/ssh $5-50 per account Ecommerce Access to various ecommerce sites, including Airbnb and similar services $10 per account

When looking at the data it’s quite mind-blowing that you can basically sell someone’s complete digital life for less than $50 dollars. We’re not talking about getting access to bank accounts, but you do get access to services where a credit card might be included such as Spotify, Netflix, Facebook and others.

Besides just taking full control of someone’s digital life, access to these services is used by other criminals, for example, to spread malware or conduct phishing attacks.

The level of availability of these hacked or stolen accounts is very impressive; basically anyone with a computer can get access – you don’t have to be an advanced cybercriminal to know where to find them.

Senzor Walabot Home dohlédne na padající lidi. V případě nehody přivolá pomoc

Zive.cz - bezpečnost - 5 Listopad, 2018 - 11:00
** Firma Vayyar Imaging představila svůj nový produkt Walabot Home ** Cílí na seniory, kterým v případě pádu automaticky zavolá pomoc ** Opadá tak nutnost nosit jakékoli „nouzové tlačítko“
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

Apple's New MacBook Disconnects Microphone "Physically" When Lid is Closed

The Hacker News - 4 Listopad, 2018 - 18:51
Apple introduces a new privacy feature for all new MacBooks that "at some extent" will prevent hackers and malicious applications from eavesdropping on your conversations. Apple's custom T2 security chip in the latest MacBooks includes a new hardware feature that physically disconnects the MacBook's built-in microphone whenever the user closes the lid, the company revealed yesterday at its event
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

New Intel CPU Flaw Exploits Hyper-Threading to Steal Encrypted Data

The Hacker News - 4 Listopad, 2018 - 10:24
A team of security researchers has discovered another serious side-channel vulnerability in Intel CPUs that could allow an attacker to sniff out sensitive protected data, like passwords and cryptographic keys, from other processes running in the same CPU core with simultaneous multi-threading feature enabled. The vulnerability, codenamed PortSmash (CVE-2018-5407), has joined the list of other
Kategorie: Hacking & Security
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