Hacking & Security

OpenSSL Releases Patch for POODLE Attack

Threatpost - 16 Říjen, 2014 - 16:29
The OpenSSL Project has released a new version of the encryption software, which patches several security flaws, including the bug that is exploited by the POODLE attack on SSLv3. The updated versions of OpenSSL come just a couple of days after a trio of researchers at Google revealed the POODLE attack, which allows an attacker to […]
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

The Ventir Trojan: assemble your MacOS spy

Kaspersky Securelist - 16 Říjen, 2014 - 16:00

We got an interesting file (MD5 9283c61f8cce4258c8111aaf098d21ee) for analysis a short while ago. It turned out to be a sample of modular malware for MacOS X. Even after preliminary analysis it was clear that the file was not designed for any good purpose: an ordinary 64-bit mach-o executable contained several more mach-o files in its data section; it set one of them to autorun, which is typical of Trojan-Droppers.

Further investigation showed that a backdoor, a keylogger and a Trojan-Spy were hidden inside the sample. It is particularly noteworthy that the keylogger uses an open-source kernel extension. The extension's code is publicly available, for example, on GitHub!

Depending on their purpose, these files are detected by Kaspersky Lab antivirus solutions as Trojan-Dropper.OSX.Ventir.a, Backdoor.OSX.Ventir.a, Trojan-Spy.OSX.Ventir.a and not-a-virus:Monitor.OSX.LogKext.c.

Source file (Trojan-Dropper.OSX.Ventir.a)

As soon as it is launched, the dropper checks whether it has root access by calling the geteuid () function. The result of the check determines where the Trojan's files will be installed:

  • If it has root access, the files will be installed in /Library/.local and /Library/LaunchDaemons;
  • If it does not have root access, the files will be installed in ~/Library/.local and ~/Library/LaunchAgents ("~" stands for the path to the current user's home directory).

All files of the Trojan to be downloaded to the victim machine are initially located in the "__data" section of the dropper file.

Location of the Trojan's files inside the dropper

As a result, the following files will be installed on the infected system:

  1. Library/.local/updated – re-launches files update and EventMonitor in the event of unexpected termination.
  2. Library/.local/reweb – used to re-launch the file updated.
  3. Library/.local/update – the backdoor module.
  4. Library/.local/libweb.db – the malicious program's database file. Initially contains the Trojan's global settings, such as the C&C address.
  5. Library/LaunchAgents (or LaunchDaemons)/com.updated.launchagent.plist – the properties file used to set the file Library/.local/updated to autorun using the launchd daemon.
  6. Depending on whether root access is available:

    А) if it is – /Library/.local/kext.tar. The following files are extracted from the archive:

    • updated.kext – the driver that intercepts user keystrokes
    • Keymap.plist – the map which matches the codes of the keys pressed by the user to the characters associated with these codes;
    • EventMonitor – the agent which logs keystrokes as well as certain system events to the following file: Library/.local/.logfile.

    B) if it isn't – ~/Library/.local/EventMonitor. This is the agent that logs the current active window name and the keystrokes to the following file: Library/.local/.logfile

After installing these files, the Trojan sets the file updated to autorun using launchctl – the standard console utility (launchctl load% s/com.updated.launchagent.plist command).

Next, if root access is available, the dropper loads the logging driver into the kernel using the standard utility OSX kextload (kextload /System/Library/Extensions/updated.kext command)

After that, Trojan-Dropper.OSX.Ventir.a launches the file reweb and removes itself from the system.

Updated and reweb files

The file updated terminates all processes with the name reweb (killall -9 reweb command). After that, it regularly checks whether the processes EventMonitor and update are running and restarts them if necessary.

The file reweb terminates all processes with the names updated and update and then runs the file Library/.local/updated.

Update (Backdoor.OSX.Ventir.a) file

The backdoor first allocates the field values from the config table of the libweb.db database to local variables for further use.

To receive commands from C&C, the  malware uses an HTTP GET request in the following format: http://220.175.13.250:82/macsql.php?mode=getcmd&key=1000&udid=000C29174BA0, where key is some key stored in libweb.db in the config table; udid is the MAC address and 220.175.13.250:82 is the IP-address and port of the C & C server.

This request is sent regularly at short intervals in an infinite loop.

The backdoor can process the following commands from C&C:

  • reboot – restart the computer;
  • restart – restart the backdoor by launching reweb file;
  • uninstall – completely remove the backdoor from the system
  • show config – send data from the config table to the C&C server;
  • down exec – update the file update, download it from the C&C-server;
  • down config – update configuration file libweb.db, download it from the C&C server;
  • upload config – send the file libweb.db to the C&C server;
  • update config:[parameters] – update the config table in the libweb.db database file; values of fields from the table are sent as parameters;
  • executeCMD:[ parameter] – execute the command specified in the parameter using the function popen(cmd, "r"); send the command's output to the C & C server;
  • executeSYS:[parameter] – execute the command specified in the parameter using the function system(cmd);
  • executePATH:[parameter] – run file from the Library/.local/ directory; the file name is sent in the parameter;
  • uploadfrompath:[parameter] – upload file with the name specified in the parameter from the Library/.local/ directory to the C&C server;
  • downfile:[parameters] – download file with the name specified in a parameter from the C&C server and save it to the path specified in another parameter.

Some of the commands processed by the backdoor module

EventMonitor (Trojan-Spy.OSX.Ventir.a) file

This file is downloaded to the system if the dropper cannot get root access. Once launched, Trojan-Spy.OSX.Ventir.a installs its own system event handler using Carbon Event Manager API functions. The new handler intercepts all keystroke events and logs them to the file ~/Library/.local/.logfile. Modifier buttons (e.g., shift) are logged as follows: [command], [option], [ctrl], [fn], [ESC], [tab], [backspace], etc.

Keyboard event handler

Immediately before processing a keystroke, the malware determines the name of the process whose window is currently active. To do this, it uses GetFrontProcess and CopyProcessName functions from Carbon API. The name of the process is also logged as [Application {process_name} is the frontwindow]. This enables the Trojan's owner to determine in which application the phrase logged was entered.

kext.tar (not-a-virus:Monitor.OSX.LogKext.c) file

As mentioned above, the kext.tar archive is downloaded to the infected computer if Trojan-Dropper.OSX.Ventir has successfully got root access. The archive contains three files:

  • updated.kext
  • EventMonitor
  • Keymap.plist

The updated.kext software package is an open-source kernel extension (kext) designed to intercept keystrokes. This extension has long been detected by Kaspersky Lab products as not-a-virus:Monitor.OSX.LogKext.c and the source code (as it mentioned earlier) is currently available to the general public.

The file Keymap.plist is a map which matches the codes of keys pressed to their values. The file EventMonitor uses it to determine key values based on the codes provided to it by the file updated.kext.

The file EventMonitor is an agent file that receives data from the updated.kext kernel extension, processes it and records it in the /Library/.local/.logfile log file. Below is a fragment of the log that contains a login and password intercepted by the Trojan

As the screenshot demonstrates, as soon as a victim enters the username and password to his or her email account on yandex.ru, the data is immediately logged and falls into the cybercriminals' hands.

This threat is especially significant in view of the recent leaks of login and password databases from Yandex, Mail.ru and Gmail. It is quite possible that malware from the Ventir family was used to supply data to the databases published by cybercriminals.

In conclusion, it should be noted that Trojan-Dropper.OSX.Ventir.a with its modular structure is similar to the infamous Trojan.OSX.Morcut (aka OSX/Crisis), which had approximately the same number of modules with similar functionality. Using open-source software makes it much easier for cybercriminals to create new malware. This means we can safely assume that the number of Trojan-Spy programs will only grow in the future.

Teredo Tunneling

InfoSec Institute Resources - 16 Říjen, 2014 - 15:05

Introduction In this article we will learn about a transition technology in networking known as Teredo tunneling. There are various transition technologies already in place such as 6to4, but because of some shortcoming of the existing technologies, Teredo was developed. Teredo has some security considerations which will be covered later [...]

The post Teredo Tunneling appeared first on InfoSec Institute.

Kategorie: Hacking & Security

POODLE attack takes bytes out of your encrypted data - here's what to do

Sophos Naked Security - 16 Říjen, 2014 - 14:54
Heartbleed, Shellshock, Sandworm...and now POODLE. It's a security hole that could let crooks read your encrypted web traffic. Paul Ducklin takes you through how it works, and what you can do to avoid it, in plain (well, plain-ish) English...

Protecting the Smart Grid from Cyber Threats

InfoSec Institute Resources - 16 Říjen, 2014 - 14:00

In October 2008, an assassination attempt against exiled former Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto was carried out by al-Qaeda operatives in the form of a roadside bombing of her caravan. The first sign that an attack was about to occur, according to witnesses, was the sudden switching off of public streetlights along [...]

The post Protecting the Smart Grid from Cyber Threats appeared first on InfoSec Institute.

Kategorie: Hacking & Security

Facebook “Safety Check” Allows You to Connect with Family during Natural Disasters

The Hacker News - 16 Říjen, 2014 - 13:43
Facebook is moving a step ahead from others and making its social media service as an information sharing platform in serious situations as well. The social networking giant has announced a new tool, which lets users notify their family and friends that they are safe during or after natural disasters. <!-- adsense --> The tool, named "Safety Check," will soon be available globally to over
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

Snapchat to address sketchy third-party apps with public API ... at some point

Sophos Naked Security - 16 Říjen, 2014 - 13:06
Oh, those darn third-party apps, their home-brewed APIs and their photo-leaking ways, Snapchat moaned on Wednesday morning, promising to cook up a public API to fix the situation... sooner or later.

U2's Bono says sorry for foisting album on everybody's iTunes

Sophos Naked Security - 16 Říjen, 2014 - 12:19
In a Facebook interview, a U2 fan - or, well, maybe just somebody who took advantage of the chance to tell off the band - asked the band to please never release an automatically downloaded album again, given that "It's really rude."

Virus se vydává za bezpečnostní aplikaci, varovala Česká spořitelna

Novinky.cz - bezpečnost - 16 Říjen, 2014 - 12:04
Česká spořitelna varovala před nebezpečným virem, který kybernetičtí zločinci vydávají za bezpečnostní aplikaci. Snaží se tak dostat k penězům na cizích bankovních účtech, nezvaný návštěvník jim totiž otevře zadní vrátka na mobilní telefon, kam chodí potvrzovací SMS zprávy.
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

Facebook to Double Bounty Payouts For Ad Code Bugs

Threatpost - 15 Říjen, 2014 - 21:00
Facebook said it will double bug bounty payouts for the remainder of the year for serious vulnerabilities in its ad code.
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

Two Patched Zero Days Targeting Windows Kernel

Threatpost - 15 Říjen, 2014 - 20:58
Security firms have peeled back the layers on two zero day vulnerabilities that are currently being used in limited, targeted attacks against the Windows Kernel.
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

This POODLE bites: exploiting the SSL 3.0 fallback

Google Security Blog - 15 Říjen, 2014 - 20:47
Today we are publishing details of a vulnerability in the design of SSL version 3.0. This vulnerability allows the plaintext of secure connections to be calculated by a network attacker. I discovered this issue in collaboration with Thai Duong and Krzysztof Kotowicz (also Googlers).

SSL 3.0 is nearly 18 years old, but support for it remains widespread. Most importantly, nearly all browsers support it and, in order to work around bugs in HTTPS servers, browsers will retry failed connections with older protocol versions, including SSL 3.0. Because a network attacker can cause connection failures, they can trigger the use of SSL 3.0 and then exploit this issue.

Disabling SSL 3.0 support, or CBC-mode ciphers with SSL 3.0, is sufficient to mitigate this issue, but presents significant compatibility problems, even today. Therefore our recommended response is to support TLS_FALLBACK_SCSV. This is a mechanism that solves the problems caused by retrying failed connections and thus prevents attackers from inducing browsers to use SSL 3.0. It also prevents downgrades from TLS 1.2 to 1.1 or 1.0 and so may help prevent future attacks.

Google Chrome and our servers have supported TLS_FALLBACK_SCSV since February and thus we have good evidence that it can be used without compatibility problems. Additionally, Google Chrome will begin testing changes today that disable the fallback to SSL 3.0. This change will break some sites and those sites will need to be updated quickly.

In the coming months, we hope to remove support for SSL 3.0 completely from our client products.

Thank you to all the people who helped review and discuss responses to this issue.

Posted by Bodo Möller, Google Security Team

[Updated Oct 15 to note that SSL 3.0 is nearly 18 years old, not nearly 15 years old.]
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

Drupal Fixes Highly Critical SQL Injection Flaw

Threatpost - 15 Říjen, 2014 - 19:34
Drupal has patched a critical SQL injection vulnerability in version 7.x of the content management system that can allow arbitrary code execution.
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

SMS zprávy jsou pro podvodníky zlatý důl

Novinky.cz - bezpečnost - 15 Říjen, 2014 - 19:25
Nebezpečného červa zvaného Selfmite, který se šíří prostřednictvím SMS zpráv, bezpečností experti odhalili už na konci července. Nyní se ale objevila jeho inovovaná verze, která se šíří kybernetickým světem jako lavina. Není se čemu divit, Selfmite vydělává podvodníkům velké peníze. Před hrozbou varoval Národní bezpečnostní tým CSIRT.CZ.
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

Seleznev Arrest Explains ‘2Pac’ Downtime

Krebs on Security - 15 Říjen, 2014 - 18:50

The U.S. Justice Department has piled on more charges against alleged cybercrime kingpin Roman Seleznev, a Russian national who made headlines in July when it emerged that he’d been whisked away to Guam by U.S. federal agents while vacationing in the Maldives. The additional charges against Seleznev may help explain the extended downtime at an extremely popular credit card fraud shop in the cybercrime underground.

The 2pac[dot]cc credit card shop.

The government alleges that the hacker known in the underground as “nCux” and “Bulba” was Roman Seleznev, a 30-year-old Russian citizen who was arrested in July 2014 by the U.S. Secret Service. According to Russian media reports, the young man is the son of a prominent Russian politician.

Seleznev was initially identified by the government in 2012, when it named him as part of a conspiracy involving more than three dozen popular merchants on carder[dot]su, a bustling fraud forum where Bulba and other members openly marketed various cybercrime-oriented services (see the original indictment here).

According to Seleznev’s original indictment, he was allegedly part of a group that hacked into restaurants between 2009 and 2011 and planted malicious software to steal card data from store point-of-sale devices. The indictment further alleges that Seleznev and unnamed accomplices used his online monikers to sell stolen credit and debit cards at bulba[dot]cc and track2[dot]name. Customers of these services paid for their cards with virtual currencies, including WebMoney and Bitcoin.

But last week, U.S. prosecutors piled on another 11 felony counts against Seleznev, charging that he also sold stolen credit card data on a popular carding store called 2pac[dot]cc. Interestingly, Seleznev’s arrest coincides with a period of extended downtime on 2pac[dot]cc, during which time regular customers of the store could be seen complaining on cybercrime forums where the store was advertised that the proprietor of the shop had gone silent and was no longer responding to customer support inquiries.

A few weeks after Seleznev’s arrest, it appears that someone new began taking ownership of 2pac[dot]cc’s day-to-day operations. That individual recently posted a message on the carding shop’s home page apologizing for the extended outage and stating that fresh, new cards were once again being added to the shop’s inventory.

The message, dated Aug. 8, 2014, explains that the proprietor of the shop was unreachable because he was hospitalized following a car accident:

“Dear customers. We apologize for the inconvenience that you are experiencing now by the fact that there are no updates and [credit card] checker doesn’t work. This is due to the fact that our boss had a car accident and he is in hospital. We will solve all problems as soon as possible. Support always available, thank you for your understanding.”

2pac[dot]cc’s apologetic message to would-be customers of the credit card fraud shop.

IT’S ALL ABOUT CUSTOMER SERVICE

2pac is but one of dozens of fraud shops selling stolen debit and credit cards. And with news of new card breaches at major retailers surfacing practically each week, the underground is flush with inventory. The single most important factor that allows individual card shop owners to differentiate themselves among so much choice is providing excellent customer service.

Many card shops, including 2pac[dot]cc, try to keep customers happy by including an a-la-carte card-checking service that allows customers to test purchased cards using compromised merchant accounts — to verify that the cards are still active. Most card shop checkers are configured to automatically refund to the customer’s balance the value of any cards that come back as declined by the checking service.

This same card checking service also is built into rescator[dot]cc, a card shop profiled several times in this blog and perhaps best known as the source of cards stolen from the Target, Sally Beauty, P.F. Chang’s and Home Depot retail breaches. Shortly after breaking the news about the Target breach, I published a lengthy analysis of forum data that suggested Rescator was a young man based in Odessa, Ukraine.

Turns out, Rescator is a major supplier of stolen cards to other, competing card shops, including swiped1[dot]su — a carding shop that’s been around in various forms since at least 2008. That information came in a report (PDF) released today by Russian computer security firm Group-IB, which said it discovered a secret way to view the administrative statistics for the swiped1[dot]su Web site. Group-IB found that a user named Rescator was by far the single largest supplier of stolen cards to the shop, providing some 5,306,024 cards to the shop over the years.

Group-IB also listed the stats on how many of Rescator’s cards turned out to be useful for cybercriminal customers. Of the more than five million cards Rescator contributed to the shop, only 151,720 (2.8 percent) were sold. Another 421,801 expired before they could be sold. A total of 42,626 of the 151,720 — or about 28 percent – of Rescator’s cards that were sold on Swiped1[dot]su came back as declined when run through the site’s checking service.

The swiped1[dot]su login page.

Many readers have asked why the thieves responsible for the card breach at Home Depot collected cards from Home Depot customers for five months before selling the cards (on Rescator’s site, of course). After all, stolen credit cards don’t exactly age gracefully or grow more valuable over time.

One possible explanation — supported by the swiped1[dot]su data and by my own reporting on this subject — is that veteran fraudsters like Rescator know that only a tiny fraction of stolen cards actually get sold. Based on interviews with several banks that were heavily impacted by the Target breach, for example, I have estimated that although Rescator and his band of thieves managed to steal some 40 million debit and credit card numbers in the Target breach, they likely only sold between one and three million of those cards.

The crooks in the Target breach were able to collect 40 million cards in approximately three weeks, mainly because they pulled the trigger on the heist on or around Black Friday, the busiest shopping day of the year and the official start of the holiday shopping season in the United States. My guess is that Rescator and his associates understood all too well how many cards they needed to steal from Home Depot to realize a certain number of sales and monetary return for the heist, and that they kept collecting cards until they had hit that magic number.

For anyone who’s interested, the investigation into swiped1[dot]su was part of a larger report that Group-IB published today, available here.

Kategorie: Hacking & Security

South Korean ID system faces overhauls following 10 years of data thefts

Sophos Naked Security - 15 Říjen, 2014 - 18:35
The South Korean government is considering reissuing national identity card ID numbers for every citizen over the age of 17, at the cost of billions of US dollars.

Ghost in the (Bourne Again) Shell: Fallout of Shellshock far from over

Ars Technica - 15 Říjen, 2014 - 18:00

The long, painful rollout of patches to a security flaw in the Bourne Again Shell (bash) has left thousands of systems still vulnerable, and malware based on the vulnerability continues to spread, according to a number of security experts. But even for organizations that have already applied the patch for what has been dubbed the “Shellshock” vulnerability, the cleanup may not be over—and it could be long and expensive.

Soon after the Shellshock bug was publicly disclosed and its initial patch was distributed, weaknesses in the patch itself and additional security vulnerabilities were uncovered by developers dealing with the issue. And within a day of the disclosure, attacks exploiting the vulnerability were found in the wild. Some of those attacks are still trying to spread—and in some cases, they’re using Google searches to help them find potential targets. Successful attacks may have made changes to the targeted systems that would not have been corrected by the application of the patch.

The problem with Shellshock is similar to problems that emerged after the Heartbleed bug and numerous other vulnerabilities—while organizations struggle to understand the disclosures, how they affect their systems, and how to successfully implement patches, others—including security researchers—race to build proof-of-concept attacks based on them to demonstrate exactly how dire they are. And those proofs of concept often get picked up by cybercriminals and others with bad intent before organizations can effectively patch them—using them to exploit systems in ways that are much longer-lasting than the vulnerability du jour.

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Kategorie: Hacking & Security

Microsoft Extends SHA-2, TLS Support for Windows

Threatpost - 15 Říjen, 2014 - 17:40
Microsoft announced that it has extended support for SHA-2 and TLS in supported versions of Windows.
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

Browser Vendors Move to Disable SSLv3 in Wake of POODLE Attack

Threatpost - 15 Říjen, 2014 - 16:35
With details of the new POODLE attack on SSLv3 now public, browser vendors are in the process of planning how they're going to address the issue in their products in a way that doesn't break the Internet for millions of users but still provides protection.
Kategorie: Hacking & Security

Java Reflection API Woes Resurface in Latest Oracle Patches

Threatpost - 15 Říjen, 2014 - 15:55
Oracle's Critical Patch update addresses 154 vulnerabilities, many of which are remotely exploitable. Security Explorations of Poland, meanwhile, published details on a number of Java flaws in the Java Reflection API.
Kategorie: Hacking & Security
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